Christopher D. Putnam

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Crystallography supplies unparalleled detail on structural information critical for mechanistic analyses; however, it is restricted to describing low energy conformations of macromolecules within crystal lattices. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) offers complementary information about macromolecular folding, unfolding, aggregation, extended(More)
Most human cancer cells show signs of genome instability, ranging from elevated mutation rates to gross chromosomal rearrangements and alterations in chromosome number. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that generate this instability or how it is suppressed in normal cells. Recent studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have begun to(More)
The eukaryotic MutS homolog complexes, Msh2-Msh6 and Msh2-Msh3, recognize mismatched bases in DNA during mismatch repair (MMR). The eukaryote-specific N-terminal regions (NTRs) of Msh6 and Msh3 have not been characterized other than by demonstrating that they contain an N-terminal PCNA-interacting motif. Here we have demonstrated genetically that the NTR of(More)
OBJECTIVE The cryopyrinopathies are a group of rare autoinflammatory disorders that are caused by mutations in CIAS1, encoding the cryopyrin protein. However, cryopyrin mutations are found only in 50% of patients with clinically diagnosed cryopyrinopathies. This study was undertaken to investigate the structural effect of disease-causing mutations on(More)
Human catalase is an heme-containing peroxisomal enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen; it is implicated in ethanol metabolism, inflammation, apoptosis, aging and cancer. The 1. 5 A resolution human enzyme structure, both with and without bound NADPH, establishes the conserved features of mammalian catalase fold and assembly,(More)
The RuvB hexamer is the chemomechanical motor of the RuvAB complex that migrates Holliday junction branch-points in DNA recombination and the rescue of stalled DNA replication forks. The 1.6 A crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima RuvB together with five mutant structures reveal that RuvB is an ATPase-associated with diverse cellular activities(More)
Suppression of duplication-mediated gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) is essential to maintain genome integrity in eukaryotes. Here we report that SUMO ligase Mms21 has a strong role in suppressing GCRs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while Siz1 and Siz2 have weaker and partially redundant roles. Understanding the functions of these enzymes has been(More)
A member of the Bacillus-produced vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) possesses high specificity against the major insect pest, corn rootworms, and belongs to a class of binary toxins and regulators of biological pathways distinct from classical A-B toxins. The 1.5 A resolution crystal structure of the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase component, VIP2,(More)
The Escherichia coli mispair-binding protein MutS forms dimers and tetramers in vitro, although the functional form in vivo is under debate. Here we demonstrate that the MutS tetramer is extended in solution using small angle x-ray scattering and the crystal structure of the C-terminal 34 amino acids of MutS containing the tetramer-forming domain fused to(More)
In eukaryotes, it is unknown whether mismatch repair (MMR) is temporally coupled to DNA replication and how strand-specific MMR is directed. We fused Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH6 with cyclins to restrict the availability of the Msh2-Msh6 mismatch recognition complex to either S phase or G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The Msh6-S cyclin fusion was proficient(More)