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The genome-wide location of RNA polymerase binding sites was determined in Escherichia coli using chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarrays (chIP-chip). Cross-linked chromatin was isolated in triplicate from rifampin-treated cells, and DNA bound to RNA polymerase was precipitated with an antibody specific for the beta' subunit. The DNA was amplified and(More)
Expression of an amber suppressor tRNA should result in read-through of the 326 open reading frames (ORFs) that terminate with amber stop codons in the Escherichia coli genome, including six pseudogenes. Abnormal extension of an ORF might alter the activities of the protein and have effects on cellular physiology, while suppression of a pseudogene could(More)
The development and validation of new methods to help direct rational strain design for metabolite overproduction remains an important problem in metabolic engineering. Here we show that computationally predicted E. coli strain designs, calculated from a genome-scale metabolic model, can lead to successful production strains and that adaptive evolution of(More)
In Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium able to rapidly ferment cellulose to ethanol, pyruvate kinase (EC is absent based on both the genome sequence and enzymatic assays. Instead, a new pathway converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate via a three-step pathway involving phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, NADH-linked(More)
BACKGROUND With the development of new technology, it has recently become practical to resequence the genome of a bacterium after experimental manipulation. It is critical though to know the accuracy of the technique used, and to establish confidence that all of the mutations were detected. RESULTS In order to evaluate the accuracy of genome resequencing(More)
BACKGROUND Cellulose is highly recalcitrant and thus requires a specialized suite of enzymes to solubilize it into fermentable sugars. In C. thermocellum, these extracellular enzymes are present as a highly active multi-component system known as the cellulosome. This study explores the expression of a critical C. thermocellum cellulosomal component in T.(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND The thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum is capable of directly fermenting xylan and the biomass-derived sugars glucose, cellobiose, xylose, mannose, galactose and arabinose. It has been metabolically engineered and developed as a biocatalyst for the production of ethanol. RESULTS We report the initial(More)
BACKGROUND A previously developed mathematical model of low solids thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF) with Avicel was unable to predict performance at high solids using a commercial cellulase preparation (Spezyme CP) and the high ethanol yield Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain ALK2. The observed hydrolysis(More)
BACKGROUND The liberation of acetate from hemicellulose negatively impacts fermentations of cellulosic biomass, limiting the concentrations of substrate that can be effectively processed. Solvent-producing bacteria have the capacity to convert acetate to the less toxic product acetone, but to the best of our knowledge, this trait has not been transferred to(More)
Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum is a hemicellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobe that was previously engineered to produce ethanol at high yield. A major project was undertaken to develop this organism into an industrial biocatalyst, but the lack of genome information and resources were recognized early on as a key limitation. Here we present a set(More)