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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) traditionally have been studied in plants and other organisms for their ability to detoxify chemically diverse herbicides and other toxic organic compounds. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of plant GSTs that have been identified. The Bronze2 (Bz2) gene encodes a type III GST and performs the last(More)
AN9 is a glutathione S-transferase from petunia (Petunia hybrida) required for efficient anthocyanin export from the site of synthesis in the cytoplasm into permanent storage in the vacuole. For many xenobiotics it is well established that a covalent glutathione (GSH) tag mediates recognition of molecules destined for vacuolar sequestration by a(More)
Anthocyanin biosynthesis is one of the most thoroughly studied enzymatic pathways in biology, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its final stage: the transport of the anthocyanin pigment into the vacuole. We have identified a multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), ZmMrp3, that is required for this transport process in maize (Zea(More)
Apicomplexan parasitic diseases impose devastating impacts on much of the world's population. The increasing prevalence of drug resistant parasites and the growing number of immuno-compromised individuals are exacerbating the problem to the point that the need for novel, inexpensive drugs is greater now than ever. Discovery of a prokaryotic, Type II fatty(More)
The pellicles of alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common organization, yet perform very divergent functions, including motility, host cell invasion, and armor. The alveolate pellicle consists of a system of flattened membrane sacs (alveoli, which are the defining feature of the group) below the plasma membrane that is(More)
Live cell imaging of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum during gametocytogenesis revealed that the apicoplast does not grow, whereas the mitochondrion undergoes remarkable morphological development. A close connection of the two organelles is consistently maintained. The apicoplast and mitochondrion are not components of the male gametes,(More)
Malaria invasion of red blood cells involves multiple parasite-specific targets that are easily accessible to inhibitory compounds, making it an attractive target for antimalarial development. However, no current antimalarial agents act against host cell invasion. Here, we demonstrate that the clinically used macrolide antibiotic azithromycin, which is(More)
The causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium, possesses three translationally active compartments: the cytosol, the mitochondrion and a relic plastid called the apicoplast. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to charge tRNA are thus required for all three compartments. However, the Plasmodiumfalciparum genome encodes too few tRNA synthetases to supply a unique enzyme(More)
The Clp chaperones and proteases play an important role in protein homeostasis in the cell. They are highly conserved across prokaryotes and found also in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and the chloroplasts of plants. They function mainly in the disaggregation, unfolding and degradation of native as well as misfolded proteins. Here, we provide a(More)
Plasmodium parasites remodel their vertebrate host cells by translocating hundreds of proteins across an encasing membrane into the host cell cytosol via a putative export machinery termed PTEX. Previously PTEX150, HSP101 and EXP2 have been shown to be bona fide members of PTEX. Here we validate that PTEX88 and TRX2 are also genuine members of PTEX and(More)