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The defocus levels required for normal observers to notice the first perceptible blur of a clear test target (blur threshold) and the least perceptible change in the degree of blurriness of an already blurry target (threshold of perceived change in blur) were measured using both the source and observer methods. In the source method observers viewed(More)
The relation between refractive error and visual acuity has been measured by two very different methods. In one called "source methods," emmetropes or corrected ametropes view defocused stimuli presented on projection screens or photographs. In the type called "observer methods," focused stimuli are presented to the observers who are either uncorrected(More)
There are two principal methods of simulating refractive errors. Either the retinal image can be defocused by an optical system, usually a positive lens, placed in front of an observer's eye (observer method), or the source of the retinal image can be defocused as it is projected onto a screen or photograph (source method). There are significant differences(More)
This paper reports an interlaboratory comparison that evaluated a protocol for measuring and analysing the particle size distribution of discrete, metallic, spheroidal nanoparticles using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study was focused on automated image capture and automated particle analysis. NIST RM8012 gold nanoparticles (30 nm nominal(More)
The morphology of a series of linear poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) zinc-neutralized ionomers with either precisely or randomly spaced acid groups was investigated using X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Scattering from semicrystalline, precise ionomers has contributions from(More)
This article simulates highly overlapped projections of spherical particles that are distributed randomly in space. The size and number of the features in the projections are examined as well as how these features change with particle size and concentration. First, there are discernable features in projection even when particles overlap extensively, and the(More)
Hollow silica particles (HSPs) have become the focus of interest in many laboratories recently, because of their versatility, stemming from the ability to control their size and shape, as well as surface functionalization. Determining the mechanical stability of hollow particles is essential for their use, both in applications in which they need to retain(More)
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