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In the course of daily living, humans frequently encounter situations in which a motor activity, once initiated, becomes unnecessary or inappropriate. Under such circumstances, the ability to inhibit motor responses can be of vital importance. Although the nature of response inhibition has been studied in psychology for several decades, its neural basis(More)
Everyday circumstances require efficient updating of behavior. Brain systems in the right inferior frontal cortex have been identified as critical for some aspects of behavioral updating, such as stopping actions. However, the precise role of these neural systems is controversial. Here we examined how the inferior frontal cortex updates behavior by(More)
Neural mechanisms of cognitive control enable us to initiate, coordinate and update behaviour. Central to successful control is the ability to suppress actions that are no longer relevant or required. In this article, we review the contribution of cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics and clinical investigations to understanding how response inhibition(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a unique method in neuroscience used to stimulate focal regions of the human brain. As TMS gains popularity in experimental and clinical domains, techniques for controlling the extent of brain stimulation are becoming increasingly important. At present, TMS intensity is typically calibrated to the excitability of(More)
Intelligent behavior depends on the ability to suppress inappropriate actions and resolve interference between competing responses. Recent clinical and neuroimaging evidence has demonstrated the involvement of prefrontal, parietal, and premotor areas during behaviors that emphasize conflict and inhibition. It remains unclear, however, whether discrete(More)
Mechanisms of selective attention are vital for guiding human behavior. The parietal cortex has long been recognized as a neural substrate of spatial attention, but the unique role of distinct parietal subregions has remained unclear. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the angular gyrus of the right parietal cortex mediates(More)
Saccadic eye movements cause sudden and global shifts in the retinal image. Rather than causing confusion, however, eye movements expand our sense of space and detail. In macaques, a stable representation of space is embodied by neural populations in intraparietal cortex that redistribute activity with each saccade to compensate for eye displacement, but(More)
Safe and effective transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) requires accurate intensity calibration. Output is typically calibrated to individual motor cortex excitability and applied to nonmotor brain areas, assuming that it captures a site nonspecific factor of excitability. We tested this assumption by correlating the effect of TMS at motor and visual(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between coil-cortex distance and effective cortical stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the left and right motor cortex. We also compare the effect of coil-cortex distance using 50 and 70 mm figure-eight stimulating coils. METHODS Coil-cortex distance was manipulated within each participant(More)
The neural basis of selective spatial attention presents a significant challenge to cognitive neuroscience. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that regions of the parietal and temporal cortex constitute a "supramodal" network that mediates goal-directed attention in multiple sensory modalities. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to(More)