Christopher D. Bertram

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We present experimental and computational results that describe the level, distribution, and importance of velocity fluctuations within the venous anastomosis of an arteriovenous graft. The motivation of this work is to understand better the importance of biomechanical forces in the development of intimal hyperplasia within these grafts. Steady-flow in(More)
A simple, third-order lumped parameter model is presented to describe unsteady flow in a short segment of collapsible tube held between two rigid segments and contained in a pressurised chamber. Equilibrium states and their stability are analysed in detail, as is fully non-linear time dependent behaviour, including in particular the excitation and(More)
The self-excited oscillation of airway structures and flexible tubes in response to flow is reviewed. The structures range from tiny airways deep in the lung causing wheezing at the end of a forced expiration, to the pursed lips of a brass musical instrument player. Other airway structures that vibrate include the vocal cords (and their avian equivalent,(More)
In this paper we examine the importance of fluid friction and nonlinearities due to the area-pressure relationship and to the convective acceleration on the separation of arterial pressure and flow waves into their forward and backward components. Experiments were run in straight uniform nonlinearly elastic tubes. Different degrees of fluid friction and(More)
Most of the elastic tubes found in the mammalian body will collapse from a distended circular cross section and when collapsed may undergo flow-induced oscillations. A mathematical model describing fluid flow in a collapsible tube is analysed using the software package AUTO-86. AUTO-86 is used for continuation and bifurcation problems in systems of(More)
A two-dimensional axi-symmetric numerical model is constructed of the spinal cord, consisting of elastic cord tissue surrounded by aqueous cerebrospinal fluid, in turn surrounded by elastic dura. The geometric and elastic parameters are simplified but of realistic order, compared with existing measurements. A distal reflecting site models scar tissue formed(More)
Collapsible-tube flow with self-excited oscillations has been extensively investigated. Though physiologically relevant, forced oscillation coupled with self-excited oscillation has received little attention in this context. Based on an ODE model of collapsible-tube flow, the present study applies modern dynamics methods to investigate numerically the(More)
A perspex (plexiglas) tube was locally deformed into an almost bi-lobar interior cross section, representative of the localized throat at the downstream end of a collapsed tube conveying a flow. The axial and transverse (parallel to the long axis of the deformed cross section) components of fluid velocity were measured in a dense rectangular grid of points(More)
A finite-difference computer model has been used to determine the potential distributions arising from a dipole current source aligned parallel to the axis of bounding cylinders. The radial position of this source had large and nonlinear influence on the potentials along the dipole axis. The accuracy of the computer simulation was established from(More)
Indirect evidence links self-excited oscillation of flow through collapsed tubes with choking, defined by the cross-sectionally averaged fluid speed u reaching the local speed of small pressure waves c. This was tested by measuring both c-u and c as functions of tube cross-sectional area during self-excited oscillation, using small superimposed(More)