Learn More
Over 61,000 anophelines collected between January 1988 and October 1989 in three villages in western Venezuela were assayed by ELISA for Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein. The six specimens confirmed positive belonged to three species: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón, 1940, A. albitarsis Arribalzaga, 1878 sensu lato and A.(More)
A study was conducted in three villages in western Venezuela between February 1988 and October 1989 to determine the biting and resting activity of anophelines in relation to human habits, rainfall and fenitrothion spraying of houses. Mosquitoes were collected landing on humans inside and outside experimental huts throughout the night. Only three mosquitoes(More)
Effective indoor residual spraying against malaria vectors depends on whether mosquitoes rest indoors (i.e., endophilic behavior). This varies among species and is affected by insecticidal irritancy. Exophilic behavior has evolved in certain populations exposed to prolonged spraying programs. Optimum effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets presumably(More)
Malaria parasites are sexually reproducing protozoa, although the extent of effective meiotic recombination in natural populations has been debated. If meiotic recombination occurs frequently, compared with point mutation and mitotic rearrangement, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic sites is expected to decline with increasing distance along a(More)
In an intensely malarious area in north-east Tanzania, microencapsulated lambdacyhalothrin was used in four villages for treatment of bednets (provided free of charge) and in another four villages the same insecticide was used for house spraying. Another four villages received neither intervention until the end of the trial but were monitored as controls.(More)
A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate (1) benefits due to personal protection of individual net users vs. mass killing of mosquitoes within villages as a result of widespread net usage; (2) sustainability over several years of benefits against malarial morbidity of insecticide-treated nets; (3) distribution of the benefits in different age groups of children and (4)(More)
Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are commonly used as a means of personal protection from malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have special treatments intended to remain effective after many washes. The present trials assessed the efficacy and wash-resistance of several production(More)
Mating by male Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) was evaluated in the laboratory to assess fitness effects of radio-sterilization applied during different life stages of the malaria vectors An. stephensi Liston and An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto. After reproductive sterilization by gamma-irradiation (120 Gy), equal proportions of sterile and(More)
Laboratory tests of insect repellents by various different methods showed that An.stephensi Liston was consistently more susceptible than An.gambiae Giles, An.albimanus Wiedemann or An.pulcherrimus Theobald. The six repellents tested were di-ethyl toluamide (deet), di-methyl phthalate (DMP), ethyl-hexanediol, permethrin, citronella and cedarwood oil.(More)