Christopher Cullander

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Epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis requires the delivery of lipids and hydrolytic enzymes by lamellar body exocytosis from the uppermost granular cells, a process that is upregulated following barrier disruption. As lamellar body secretion is controlled by ionic concentrations, especially Ca2+ and K+, we used a quantitative technique, microbeam(More)
The acquisition of simultaneous dual confocal images with red and far-red light has both advantages (e.g. lower autofluorescence) and limitations. An understanding of these requisites is necessary to acquire high-quality images and to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental data. The poor detection of far-red light mandates a high optical transfer(More)
The epidermal permeability barrier forms late in gestation, coincident with decreased lipid synthesis, increased lipid processing, and development of a mature, multi-layered stratum corneum. Prior studies have shown that changes in the epidermal Ca++ gradient in vivo regulate lamellar body secretion and lipid synthesis, and modulations in extracellular Ca++(More)
The routes taken by charged substances (e.g., peptides) through the skin during iontophoretic drug delivery are not well characterized. We have used a vibrating probe electrode to reproducibly identify and vectorize site-specific (spatial resolution = 20 microns) ionic flows as they were occurring in hairless mouse skin clamped at clinically relevant(More)
The contents of epidermal lamellar bodies (LB) are delivered selectively to the intercellular spaces at the stratum granulosum (SG)-stratum corneum (SC) interface. We assessed the subcellular basis for LB secretion first by confocal microscopy, following labeling with Nile red or NBD-ceramide, which reveals a tubulo-reticular membrane system within the(More)
Scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to image localized regions of calcein transport across human stratum corneum during constant low-voltage (iontophoresis) and pulsed high-voltage exposures. Following an electrical protocol, imaging revealed regions of fluorescence which were interpreted as sites where transport of a fluorescent probe(More)
This report describes a new iontophoretic diffusion cell that allows both electrodes to be applied to the same side of the same piece of skin. The cell permits a better approximation of the in vivo situation than do conventional side-by-side cells. The unique construction of the cell allows nonliquid material to be applied to the skin surface and makes it(More)
Purpose. To visualize the transport pathway(s) of high molecular weight model compounds across rat nasal epithelium in vivousing confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the influence of nasal absorption enhancers (randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin and sodium taurodihydrofusidate) on this transport was studied. Methods. Fluorescein isothiocyanate(More)
A quantitative, minimally invasive tape-stripping assay for the detection of metals on and in skin that also has application to the detection of metallic elements on dry surfaces (where human contact could occur) has been developed. This development included construction, using commercial products, of an approximately 25 microm thick, low-metal content tape(More)