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Paracrine influences from fibroblasts derived from different sources of breast tissue on epithelial breast cancer cell growth in vitro were investigated. Medium conditioned (CM) by fibroblasts derived from tumours, adjacent normal breast tissue, and normal breast tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty or from skin tissue significantly stimulated the(More)
The expression of oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and androgen (AR) receptors in female breast cancer was investigated by immunohistochemistry on snap-frozen tissue specimens of a series of 100 breast cancers. For detection of the AR we used a recently developed mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the N-terminal domain of the human AR. Expression of AR(More)
To analyse the clinical significance of the presence of androgen receptors (AR) in breast carcinomas, clinical and histological parameters of 153 primary breast carcinomas (median follow-up 46 months) were examined. Oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels were determined in cytosol preparations using enzyme immunoassay assays and in cryostat(More)
A stromal fibroblast-mediated paracrine regulation of epithelial tumor cell proliferation and differentiation plays an important role in the development and progression of breast tumors. We have studied the paracrine growth regulation of various phenotypically different breast cancer cell lines using conditioned serum-free media (C-SFM) from primary breast(More)
This paper uses a Bayesian hierarchical latent trait model, and data from eight different university ranking systems, to measure university quality. There are five contributions. First, I find that ratings tap a unidimensional, underlying trait of university quality. Second, by combining information from different systems, I obtain more accurate ratings(More)
This article presents an electoral model where activist groups contribute resources to their favored parties. These resources are then used by the party candidates to enhance the electoral perception of their quality or valence. We construct an empirical model of the United States presidential election of 2008 and employ the electoral perception of the(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a hormonally regulated growth inhibitor with autocrine and/or paracrine functions in human breast cancer. In vivo, enhanced immunohistochemical staining of extracellular TGF-beta 1 has been detected around stromal fibroblasts in response to the antiestrogen treatment. We have investigated the effects of(More)