Christopher Carroll

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BACKGROUND Implementation fidelity refers to the degree to which an intervention or programme is delivered as intended. Only by understanding and measuring whether an intervention has been implemented with fidelity can researchers and practitioners gain a better understanding of how and why an intervention works, and the extent to which outcomes can be(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze cardiovascular death in a national end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. STUDY DESIGN This retrospective, observational study with data from the US Renal Data Systems analyzed 1380 deaths from 1990 to 1996 among patients who started ESRD therapy as children and died before 30 years of age. RESULTS Percentage of cardiac deaths(More)
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the UK: incidence increases with age, median age at diagnosis being over 70 years. Approximately 25% of cases occur in individuals with a family history of CRC, including 5% caused by familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary non-polyposis CRC (HNPCC). Most develop from(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare estimates of the medical costs of smoking in the United States and to consider their relevance to assessing the costs of smoking in developing countries and the net economic burden of smoking. DATA SOURCES A Medline search through early 1999 using keywords "smoking" and "cost", with review of article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION(More)
BACKGROUND Current practice for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) involves troponin testing 10-12 hours after symptom onset to diagnose myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with a negative troponin can be investigated further with computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTCA) or exercise electrocardiography (ECG). OBJECTIVES We aimed to estimate(More)
BACKGROUND A variety of different approaches to the synthesis of qualitative data are advocated in the literature. The aim of this paper is to describe the application of a pragmatic method of qualitative evidence synthesis and the lessons learned from adopting this "best fit" framework synthesis approach. METHODS An evaluation of framework synthesis as(More)
PURPOSE Long-term sickness absence among workers is a major problem in industrialised countries. The aim of the review is to determine whether interventions involving the workplace are more effective and cost-effective at helping employees on sick leave return to work than those that do not involve the workplace at all. METHODS A systematic review of(More)
BACKGROUND Following publication of the first worked example of the "best fit" method of evidence synthesis for the systematic review of qualitative evidence in this journal, the originators of the method identified a need to specify more fully some aspects of this particular derivative of framework synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS We therefore present a(More)
The relationship between the delivered dose of hemodialysis and patient mortality remains somewhat controversial. Several observational studies have shown improved patient survival with higher levels of delivered dialysis dose. However, several other unmeasured variables, changes in patient mix or medical management may have impacted on this reported(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab and cetuximab in the treatment of individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). DATA SOURCES Searches of main electronic databases were conducted in April and May 2005. REVIEW METHODS For the assessment of bevacizumab, trials were included if they recruited(More)