Christopher C. W. Hughes

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Mice are the experimental tool of choice for the majority of immunologists and the study of their immune responses has yielded tremendous insight into the workings of the human immune system. However, as 65 million years of evolution might suggest, there are significant differences. Here we outline known discrepancies in both innate and adaptive immunity,(More)
Wnts are a family of secreted glycoproteins with diverse developmental roles, including regulation of cell migration; however, little is known about wnt signaling in mature T cells. We find that endothelial-cell-derived wnts, acting through Frizzled receptors, induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 expression in effector T cells. Blocking wnt(More)
Pathological angiogenesis associated with wound healing often occurs subsequent to an inflammatory response that includes the secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Controversy exists on the angiogenic actions of TNF, with it being generally proangiogenic in vivo, but antiangiogenic in vitro. We find that whereas continuous(More)
The requirement for notch signaling during vascular development is well-documented but poorly understood. Embryonic and adult endothelial cells (EC) express notch and notch ligands; however, the necessity for cell-autonomous notch signaling during angiogenesis has not been determined. During angiogenesis, EC display plasticity, whereby a subset of(More)
Angiogenesis is a multistep process of critical importance both in development and in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the adult. It involves endothelial cell (EC) sprouting from the parent vessel, followed by migration, proliferation, alignment, tube formation, and anastomosis to other vessels. Several in vitro models have attempted to(More)
Estrogen binds to receptors that translocate to the plasma membrane and to the nucleus. The rapid, non-genomic actions of this sex steroid are attributed to membrane action, while gene transcription occurs through nuclear receptor function. However, gene transcription can also result from estrogen signaling initiated at the membrane, but the relative(More)
Angiogenesis is essential for normal homeostasis, wound healing, and tumor growth and involves a switch in endothelial cell (EC) phenotype from quiescence to migration, proliferation and network formation, and back to quiescence. The notch signaling pathway is critically involved in cell fate decisions during development, and mice deficient in several(More)
Human endothelial cells (ECs) provide costimulatory signals sufficient to activate resting memory T cells to produce IL-2 and IFN-gamma, at least in part through CD58-CD2 interactions. Recently, the B7-like molecule, B7-H1 (PD-L1), was described and shown to regulate T cell activation; however, there are conflicting reports on whether it stimulates or(More)
A role for fibroblasts in physiological and pathological angiogenesis is now well recognized; however, the precise mechanisms underlying their action have not been determined. Using an in vitro angiogenesis model in combination with a candidate gene approach, column chromatography, and mass spectrometry, we identify two classes of fibroblast-derived(More)
Multiple steroid receptors (SR) have been proposed to localize to the plasma membrane. Some structural elements for membrane translocation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) have been described, but the mechanisms relevant to other steroid receptors are entirely unknown. Here, we identify a highly conserved 9 amino acid motif in the ligand binding(More)