Christopher C Norbury

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MHC class I molecules function to present peptides eight to ten residues long to the immune system. These peptides originate primarily from a cytosolic pool of proteins through the actions of proteasomes, and are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum, where they assemble with nascent class I molecules. Most peptides are generated from proteins that are(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction. The diabetes pandemic requires new approaches to understand the pathophysiology and improve the detection, prevention, and treatment of retinopathy.(More)
Lymph-borne, soluble factors (e.g., chemokines and others) influence lymphocyte recirculation and endothelial phenotype at high endothelial venules (HEVs) in lymph node cortex. Yet the route lymph-borne soluble molecules travel from the subcapsular sinus to the HEVs is unclear. Therefore, we injected subcutaneously into mice and rats a wide variety of(More)
The rational design of vaccines that elicit CD8+ T cell responses requires knowledge of the identity of the antigen-presenting cell (APC), the location and time of presentation and the nature of the antigen presented by the APC. Here we address these questions for an antigen encoded by a recombinant vaccinia virus. We found that, following local infection,(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes and is causally associated with obesity. Inflammation plays an important role in obesity-associated insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with lower circulating levels in obese subjects, and acute(More)
The deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD has recently been implicated in the regulation of signal transduction, but its physiological function and mechanism of action are still elusive. In this study, we show that CYLD plays a pivotal role in regulating T cell activation and homeostasis. T cells derived from Cyld knockout mice display a hyperresponsive phenotype(More)
Vertebrates express three cytokine-inducible proteasome subunits that are incorporated in the place of their constitutively synthesized counterparts. There is increasing evidence that the set of peptides generated by proteasomes containing these subunits (immunoproteasomes) differs from that produced by standard proteasomes. In this study, we use mice(More)
Dendritic cells expanded from mouse bone marrow (BMDC) with granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor have potent T cell-stimulatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. This has been well documented for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted responses, and more recently using peptide-loaded and protein-pulsed DC for CD8(More)
"Cross-priming" describes the activation of naïve CD8+ T cells by professional antigen-presenting cells that have acquired viral or tumor antigens from "donor" cells. Antigen transfer is believed to be mediated by donor cell-derived molecular chaperones bearing short peptide ligands generated by proteasome degradation of protein antigens. We show here that(More)
T cell receptor signaling is essential for the generation and maturation of T lymphocyte precursors. Here we identify the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD as a positive regulator of proximal T cell receptor signaling in thymocytes. CYLD physically interacted with active Lck and promoted recruitment of active Lck to its substrate, Zap70. CYLD also removed both(More)