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BACKGROUND Management strategies for women carrying BRCA1 and 2 mutations are becoming clearer and predictive testing for a known family mutation is commonly undertaken. Implications for men are not as clear and they participate less frequently. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-six men from 10 extended families underwent predictive testing. Their motivation,(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterised by complex molecular alterations underlying the varied behaviour and response to therapy. However, translation of cancer genetic profiling for use in routine clinical practice remains elusive or prohibitively expensive. As an alternative, immunohistochemical analysis applied to routinely(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is a feature of cerebral ischaemia, multiple sclerosis, and other neurodegenerative diseases, yet the relationship between astrocytes and the BBB integrity remains unclear. We present a simple in vivo model in which primary astrocyte loss is followed by microvascular damage, using the metabolic toxin 3-chloropropanediol(More)
A reliable way to visualise the state of microglial activation is to monitor the microglial gene expression profile. Microglia are the only CNS resident cells that synthesise C1q, the recognition sub-component of the classical complement pathway, in vivo. C1q biosynthesis in resting ramified microglia is often low, but it increases dramatically in activated(More)
Drosha is a protein that plays a key role in the biogenesis of microRNAs which are well known to be deranged in human breast cancer (BC). The purpose of the current study was to assess the biological and prognostic value of Drosha protein expression in BC. Drosha protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically in two sets of BC: (1) full-face sections(More)
Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100-250 µg/kg body weight). Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure(More)
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays an important role in breast cancer progression and provides predictive information for response to targeted therapy including trastuzumab although this is limited. Downstream pathways, such as PI3K/Akt, are associated with HER2/HER3 heterodimerization promoting survival and proliferation amongst cancer(More)
Although the role of BRCA1 and the homologous recombination (HR) pathway in breast cancer (BC) has been extensively studied, the alternative repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) remains to be defined. Ku proteins bind to DNA DSB ends and play a key role in NHEJ. In this study we aimed to assess the expression(More)
Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier proteins (or SUMO) modify the function of protein substrates involved in various cellular processes including DNA damage response (DDR). It is becoming apparent that dysregulated SUMO contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting post-transcriptional modification of key proteins. It is hypothesised that SUMO contributes to the(More)
Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier is a feature of acute and chronic neurodegenerative changes, yet the relationship between astrocytes and the mature barrier remains unclear. We studied this role of astrocytes in vivo using a gliotoxin and evaluated changes in three vascular tight junction markers. Male Fisher F344 rats given systemic 3-chloropropanediol(More)