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An automated approachfor measuring in situ two-dimensional strain fields was developed and validated for its application to cartilage mechanics. This approach combines video microscopy, optimized digital image correlation (DIC), thin-plate spline smoothing (TPSS) and generalized cross-validation (GCV) techniques to achieve the desired efficiency and(More)
The precise nature of the material symmetry of articular cartilage in compression remains to be elucidated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the equilibrium compressive Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of bovine cartilage along multiple directions (parallel and perpendicular to the split line direction, and normal to the articular(More)
Inspired by the depth-dependent inhomogeneity of articular cartilage, it was hypothesized that a novel layered agarose technique, using a 2% (wt/vol) top and a 3% (wt/vol) bottom layer, would create an inhomogenous tissue construct with distinct material properties in conjoined regions. The biochemical and mechanical development of these constructs was(More)
Deformational loading represents a primary component of the chondrocyte physical environment in vivo. This review summarizes our experience with physiologic deformational loading of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels to promote development of cartilage constructs having mechanical properties matching that of the parent calf tissue, which has a Young's(More)
Dynamic deformational loading has been shown to significantly increase the development of material properties of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels, however little is known about the spatial development of the material properties within these constructs. In this study, a technique that combines video microscopy and optimized digital image correlation, was(More)
Articular cartilage exhibits complex mechanical properties such as anisotropy, inhomogeneity and tension-compression nonlinearity. This study proposes and demonstrates that the application of compressive loading in the presence of osmotic swelling can be used to acquire a spectrum of incremental cartilage moduli (EYi) and Poisson's ratios (upsilon ij) from(More)
A non-invasive methodology (based on video microscopy, optimized digital image correlation and thin plate spline smoothing technique) has been developed to determine the intrinsic tissue stiffness (H(a)) and the intrinsic fixed charge density (c(0)(F)) distribution for hydrated soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Using this technique, the(More)
Chondrocytes embedded in agarose and subjected to dynamic deformational loading produce a functional matrix with time in culture, but there is usually a delay in the development of significant differences compared to free swelling. In this study, we hypothesized that the initial presence of a cell-associated matrix would expedite construct development in(More)
This study examines how variations in the duty cycle (the duration of applied loading) of deformational loading can influence the mechanical properties of tissue engineered cartilage constructs over one month in bioreactor culture. Dynamic loading was carried out with three different duty cycles: 1 h on/1 h off for a total of 3 h loading/day, 3 h continuous(More)
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