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The CoNLL-2014 shared task was devoted to grammatical error correction of all error types. In this paper, we give the task definition , present the data sets, and describe the evaluation metric and scorer used in the shared task. We also give an overview of the various approaches adopted by the participating teams, and present the evaluation results.(More)
The CoNLL-2015 Shared Task is on Shallow Discourse Parsing, a task focusing on identifying individual discourse relations that are present in a natural language text. A discourse relation can be expressed explicitly or implicitly, and takes two arguments realized as sentences, clauses, or in some rare cases, phrases. Sixteen teams from three continents(More)
Original Social media has been playing a vital important role in our lives today. A1 Social media plays an important role in our lives today. A2 Social media plays a vital role in our lives today. A3 Social media play a vitally important role in our lives today. A4 Social media plays a vital role in our lives today. A5 Social media plays a vital and(More)
The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) methyltransferase is a transcriptional repressor. EZH2 is abnormally elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We demonstrated that EZH2 knockdown inhibited cell growth, activated apoptosis, and enhanced chemosensitivity. Further, silencing of EZH2 resulted in re-expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and down-regulation of(More)
We propose a new method of automatically extracting learner errors from parallel English as a Second Language (ESL) sentences in an effort to regularise annotation formats and reduce inconsistencies. Specifically, given an original and corrected sentence, our method first uses a linguistically enhanced alignment algorithm to determine the most likely(More)
In this report, we describe some of the issues encountered when preprocessing two of the largest datasets for Grammatical Error Correction (GEC); namely the public FCE corpus and NUCLE (along with associated CoNLL test sets). In particular, we show that it is not straightforward to convert character level annotations to token level annotations and that(More)
Recognizing the importance of technological proficiency, problem solving, teamwork, and creativity for success in an ever-changing world, many schools are adding robotics to their after-school enrichment offerings. While many of these programs are successful, unique characteristics of underserved schools present several challenges to program implementation(More)
Until now, error type performance for Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) systems could only be measured in terms of recall because system output is not annotated. To overcome this problem, we introduce ERRANT, a grammatical ERRor ANnotation Toolkit designed to automatically extract edits from parallel original and corrected sentences and classify them(More)