Christopher Bruhn

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The causal role of aneuploidy in cancer initiation remains under debate since mutations of euploidy-controlling genes reduce cell fitness but aneuploidy strongly associates with human cancers. Telomerase activation allows immortal growth by stabilizing telomere length, but its role in aneuploidy survival has not been characterized. Here, we analyze the(More)
Damaged replication forks activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), which catalyses poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) formation; however, how PARP1 or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in the S-phase checkpoint is unknown. Here we show that PAR, supplied by PARP1, interacts with Chk1 via a novel PAR-binding regulatory (PbR) motif in Chk1, independent of ATR and(More)
MRN (MRE11/RAD50/NBS) helps to activate ATM in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and also facilitates ATR activation by catalyzing the formation and extension of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs). Mutations of NBS1 and ATR cause human genomic instability syndrome NBS and ATR-Seckel, respectively, both of which feature neurodevelopmental defects.(More)
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase activation by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) requires the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, whereas ATM interactor (ATMIN) protein is required for ATM signaling induced by changes in chromatin structure. We show here that NBS1 and ATMIN proteins compete for ATM binding and that this mechanism controls ATM(More)
The MRN complex (Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1) is important in double-strand break (DSB) recognition, end resection, replication fork stabilization, and ATM and ATR activation. Complete deletion of MRN is incompatible with cell and organism life, presumably due to replication-born DSBs; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We devised a noninvasive(More)
ATR activation is dependent on temporal and spatial interactions with partner proteins. In the budding yeast model, three proteins - Dpb11(TopBP1), Ddc1(Rad9) and Dna2 - all interact with and activate Mec1(ATR). Each contains an ATR activation domain (ADD) that interacts directly with the Mec1(ATR):Ddc2(ATRIP) complex. Any of the Dpb11(TopBP1), Ddc1(Rad9)(More)
MCPH1 encodes BRCT-containing protein MCPH1/Microcephalin/BRIT1, mutations of which in humans cause autosomal recessive disorder primary microcephaly type 1 (MCPH1), characterized by a congenital reduction of brain size particularly in the cerebral cortex. We have shown previously that a deletion of Mcph1 in mice results in microcephaly because of a(More)
Mec1ATR mediates the DNA damage response (DDR), integrating chromosomal signals and mechanical stimuli. We show that the PP2A phosphatases, ceramide-activated enzymes, couple cell metabolism with the DDR. Using genomic screens, metabolic analysis, and genetic and pharmacological studies, we found that PP2A attenuates the DDR and that three metabolic(More)
Cell cycle progression is coordinated with metabolism, signaling and other complex cellular functions. The investigation of cellular processes in a cell cycle stage-dependent manner is often the subject of modern molecular and cell biological research. Cell cycle synchronization and immunostaining of cell cycle markers facilitate such analysis, but are(More)
One of the fastest cellular responses to genotoxic stress is the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers (PAR) by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1, or ARTD1). PARP1 and its enzymatic product PAR regulate diverse biological processes, such as DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, transcription and cell death. However, the inter-dependent function of the PARP1(More)
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