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The "package model" discussed here is concerned with the preservation of genetic information by primordial compartments. Each viable "package" encloses a complete set of unlinked genes in varying numbers of copies. Due to stochastic distribution and error-prone replication two potent perils endanger the informational integrity of packages: fluctuation and(More)
Single magnetic atoms, and assemblies of such atoms, on non-magnetic surfaces have recently attracted attention owing to their potential use in high-density magnetic data storage and as a platform for quantum computing. A fundamental problem resulting from their quantum mechanical nature is that the localized magnetic moments of these atoms are easily(More)