Christopher Birch

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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
UNLABELLED Resistance mutations to hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) protease inhibitors in <1% of the viral quasispecies may still allow >1000-fold viral load reductions upon treatment, consistent with their reported reduced replicative fitness in vitro. Recently, however, an R155K protease mutation was reported as the dominant(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is imprecise because antibody testing does not differentiate between acute and chronic infection. Although virologic features, such as viral load fluctuations and low levels of viremia, have been noted to be characteristic of acute HCV infection, these parameters have not been used for(More)
Treatment of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to a sustained virologic response (SVR) in the vast majority of patients, although the clinical predictors of these favorable responses are not well understood. In chronic infection, the most potent predictor of a SVR is complete viral suppression after 4 weeks of treatment, also known as a rapid(More)
UNLABELLED Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is underdiagnosed because most patients are asymptomatic. The majority of new infections occur among people who inject drugs (PWID), many of whom have a history of incarceration. In a previous pilot study, we identified symptomatic HCV cases, mainly among Caucasian inmates. We designed a cross-sectional(More)
We report a case of acute hepatitis C virus infection that occurred after a traumatic altercation among prison inmates. This report has significant implications for infection control policies and procedures in prisons and jails, where the estimated prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is ∼20 times that of the general population.
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection are at increased risk for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) compared with patients with HIV infection alone. The mechanism underlying this observation is unknown. We hypothesized that interferon (IFN) would induce biochemical improvement through its(More)
Current conventional methods utilized for forensic DNA analysis are time consuming and labor-intensive requiring large and expensive equipment and instrumentation. While more portable Rapid DNA systems have been developed, introducing them to a working laboratory still necessitates a high cost of initiation followed by the recurrent cost of the devices.(More)
To date, the forensic community regards solid phase extraction (SPE) as the most effective methodology for the purification of DNA for use in short tandem repeat (STR) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. While a dominant methodology, SPE protocols generally necessitate the use of PCR inhibitors (guanidine, IPA) and, in addition, can demand(More)
Forensic DNA analysis requires several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and separation of PCR fragments. Intuitively, there are numerous situations where it would be beneficial to speed up the overall DNA analysis process; in this work, we focus on the most time-consuming component in the analysis pipeline, namely the polymerase chain(More)