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We investigated the function of Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene expressed in developing B-cells, forebrain and neural retina, by analyzing embryos deficient in functional Lhx2 protein. Lhx2 mutant embryos are anophthalmic, have malformations of the cerebral cortex, and die in utero due to severe anemia. In Lhx2-/- embryos specification of the optic vesicle(More)
During mammalian embryonic development, the ovaries and testes develop from somatic cells of the urogenital ridges as indifferent gonads, harbouring primordial germ cells that have migrated there. After sex determination of the gonads, the testes produce testosterone and anti-Mullerian hormone which mediate male sexual differentiation, and the female(More)
Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in the endolysosomes. Previous studies implicating oxidative stress in NPC1 disease pathogenesis raised the possibility that nonenzymatic formation of cholesterol oxidation products could serve as disease biomarkers. We measured(More)
The RSH/Smith--Lemli--Opitz syndrome (RSH/SLOS) is a human autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by multiple malformations, a distinct behavioral phenotype with autistic features and mental retardation. RSH/SLOS is due to an inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis caused by mutation of the 3 beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase gene. To further our(More)
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase gene (DHCR7). SLOS patients have decreased cholesterol and increased 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) levels. Dietary cholesterol supplementation improves systemic biochemical abnormalities; however, because of the blood-brain barrier, the(More)
Lathosterol 5-desaturase catalyzes the conversion of lathosterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol in the next to last step of cholesterol synthesis. Inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis underlie a group of human malformation syndromes including Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, desmosterolosis, CHILD syndrome, CDPX2 and lathosterolosis. We disrupted the lathosterol(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the subunits B, C, and D of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mitochondrial complex II have been associated with the development of paragangliomas (PGL), gastrointestinal stromal tumors, papillary thyroid and renal carcinoma (SDHB), and testicular seminoma (SDHD). AIM Our aim was to examine the possible causative link between SDHD(More)
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), desmosterolosis and lathosterolosis are human syndromes caused by defects in the final stages of cholesterol biosynthesis. Many of the developmental malformations in these syndromes occur in tissues and structures whose embryonic patterning depends on signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins. Here we(More)
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is attributable to mutations in the gene coding for 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Low to absent enzyme activity accounts for the accumulation of both 7-dehydrocholesterol and 8-dehydrocholesterol in plasma and other tissues. Since oxysterols can participate in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, we examined the(More)
The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; also known as "RSH syndrome" [MIM 270400]) is an autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome due to a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis. Children with SLOS have elevated serum 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) levels and typically have low serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this biochemical abnormality, it has(More)