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We investigated the function of Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene expressed in developing B-cells, forebrain and neural retina, by analyzing embryos deficient in functional Lhx2 protein. Lhx2 mutant embryos are anophthalmic, have malformations of the cerebral cortex, and die in utero due to severe anemia. In Lhx2-/- embryos specification of the optic vesicle(More)
During mammalian embryonic development, the ovaries and testes develop from somatic cells of the urogenital ridges as indifferent gonads, harbouring primordial germ cells that have migrated there. After sex determination of the gonads, the testes produce testosterone and anti-Mullerian hormone which mediate male sexual differentiation, and the female(More)
Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in the endolysosomes. Previous studies implicating oxidative stress in NPC1 disease pathogenesis raised the possibility that nonenzymatic formation of cholesterol oxidation products could serve as disease biomarkers. We measured(More)
The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; also known as "RSH syndrome" [MIM 270400]) is an autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome due to a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis. Children with SLOS have elevated serum 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) levels and typically have low serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this biochemical abnormality, it has(More)
Mutations of the lamin B receptor (LBR) have been shown to cause HEM dysplasia in humans and ichthyosis in mice. LBR is a bifunctional protein with both a lamin B binding and a sterol Delta(14)-reductase domain. It previously has been proposed that LBR is the primary sterol Delta(14)-reductase and that HEM dysplasia and ichthyosis are inborn errors of(More)
Over the past few years, the number of identified inborn errors of cholesterol biosynthesis has increased significantly. The first inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis to be characterized, in the mid 1980s, was mevalonic aciduria. In 1993, Irons et al. ( 1 ) (M. Irons, E. R. Elias, G. Salen, G. S. Tint, and A. K. Batta, Lancet 341:1414, 1993) reported(More)
PURPOSE Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a recessive, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either NPC1 or NPC2. The diagnosis is difficult and frequently delayed. Ascertainment is likely incomplete because of both these factors and because the full phenotypic spectrum may not have been fully delineated. Given the recent(More)
We report the clinical and molecular data of 16 patients with RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (RSH/SLOS) with varying phenotypic severity, for which we have identified mutations in both alleles. RSH/SLOS is an autosomal recessive malformation syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding the sterol Delta(7)-reductase. This protein catalyzes the reduction(More)
The RSH/Smith--Lemli--Opitz syndrome (RSH/SLOS) is a human autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by multiple malformations, a distinct behavioral phenotype with autistic features and mental retardation. RSH/SLOS is due to an inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis caused by mutation of the 3 beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase gene. To further our(More)
Cholesterol plays a key role in many cellular processes, and is generated by cells through de novo biosynthesis or acquired from exogenous sources through the uptake of low-density lipoproteins. Cholesterol biosynthesis is a complex, multienzyme-catalyzed pathway involving a series of sequentially acting enzymes. Inherited defects in genes encoding(More)