Christopher A. Chaddock

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BACKGROUND Using positron emission tomography (PET), we previously observed increases in 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) uptake in the striatum of subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, indicating elevated presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity. The purpose of this study was to test if this finding would be replicated(More)
BACKGROUND Subtle abnormalities in frontal white matter have been reported in bipolar disorder. AIMS To assess whether impaired integrity of white matter tracts is associated with bipolar disorder and genetic liability for the disorder. METHOD A total of 19 patients with psychotic bipolar I disorder from multiply affected families, 21 unaffected(More)
The "aberrant salience" model proposes that psychotic symptoms first emerge when chaotic brain dopamine transmission leads to the attribution of significance to stimuli that would normally be considered irrelevant. This is thought to occur during the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders, but this prediction has not been tested previously. In the present(More)
BACKGROUND White matter abnormalities have been implicated in the aetiology of major depressive disorder; however, the relationship between the severity of symptoms and white matter integrity is currently unclear. AIMS To investigate white matter integrity in people with major depression and healthy controls, and to assess its relationship with depressive(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated both dysfunction of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the dopamine system in psychosis, but the relationship between them is unclear. We addressed this issue by measuring MTL activation and striatal dopaminergic function in individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis, using(More)
22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic condition associated with learning disability and high risk for psychiatric illness, in particular schizophrenia. Previous neuroimaging studies in children and adults with 22q11DS have uncovered a number of abnormalities, but have not differentiated between features relating to cognitive impairment and(More)
Little is known about the neurobiological factors that determine functional outcome in people at high risk for psychosis. We use multimodal neuroimaging to investigate whether cortical responses during a cognitive task and thalamic glutamate levels were associated with subsequent functional outcome. Sixty subjects participated: 27 healthy controls (CTRL)(More)
BACKGROUND Deficits in motivational salience processing have been related to psychotic symptoms and disturbances in dopaminergic neurotransmission. We aimed at exploring changes in salience processing and brain activity during different stages of psychosis and antipsychotic medication effect. METHODS We used fMRI during the Salience Attribution Task to(More)
The genes for the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the D-Amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA or G72) have been independently implicated in the risk for schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder and/or their related intermediate phenotypes. DAT and G72 respectively modulate central dopamine and glutamate transmission, the two systems most robustly implicated in(More)
OBJECTIVE Animal models suggest that the development of psychosis involves hyperactivity in the hippocampus that drives increased activity in the midbrain and basal ganglia. The authors examined this hypothesis by measuring resting perfusion in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and midbrain in people at high risk of psychosis. METHOD Pseudo-continuous(More)