Christophe Schnitzler

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The effects of skill level on index of arm coordination (IdC), mechanical power output (P(d)), and swim efficiency were studied in front crawlers swimming at different speeds. Seven national and seven regional swimmers performed an arms-only intermittent graded speed test on the MAD-system and in a free condition. The MAD-system measured the drag (D) and(More)
The hip intracyclic velocity variability and the index of coordination in front crawl swimming were examined in relation to performance level. 22 swimmers were assigned to either an elite or a recreational swimming group and performed 4 swim trials at different paces relative to their individual maximum velocity. A velocity meter system was set to determine(More)
The link between modifications in arm coordination (IdC) and intracyclic velocity variation (IVV) as a function of swim pace and gender is investigated. Twelve elite swimmers performed 5 different swim paces. Video analysis allowed IdC determination. The IVV was determined with a velocity-metre system. Results showed (i) a significant increase in IdC with(More)
This study examines the relationships between the index of coordination (IdC) and active drag (D) assuming that at constant average speed, average drag equals average propulsion. The relationship between IdC and propulsive efficiency (ep) was also investigated at maximal speed. Twenty national swimmers completed two incremental speed tests swimming front(More)
This study examined the variability of physiological, perceptual, stroke and coordination parameters in both genders during several swim trials at the 400-m pace speed. Twelve national level competitors (6 men, 6 women) swam 400-m at maximal speed. They then swam three additional trials (100, 200 and 300-m) at the pace (speed) of the previous 400-m. Three(More)
The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Index of Coordination (IdC) and the propulsive phase durations can differentiate performance level during a maximal 400-m front crawl swim trial. Sixteen male swimmers constituted two groups based on performance level (G1: experts; G2: recreational). All participants swam the 400-m front crawl at(More)
The effect of (a) increasing velocity and (b) added resistance was examined on the stroke (stroke length, stroke rate [SR]), coordination (index of coordination [IdC], propulsive phases), and force (impulse and peaks) parameters of 7 national-level front crawl swimmers (17.14 ± 2.73 years of swimming; 57.67 ± 1.62 seconds in the 100-m freestyle). The(More)
A classification system of treading water based on a conceptual typology was first established and then verified empirically. The typology was established on two concepts: the nature of the forces created within the water and the type of inter-limb coordination used. Thirty-eight participants were videotaped while treading water. Multivariate statistics(More)
This study sought to provide guidelines for implementing typology-based qualitative analysis of human movement patterns. Fifteen participant-analysts were instructed how to classify treading water behaviours into eight different categories using a training set of videos. They were later provided with two additional sets of videos called validation, and test(More)