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The effects of skill level on index of arm coordination (IdC), mechanical power output (P(d)), and swim efficiency were studied in front crawlers swimming at different speeds. Seven national and seven regional swimmers performed an arms-only intermittent graded speed test on the MAD-system and in a free condition. The MAD-system measured the drag (D) and(More)
The link between modifications in arm coordination (IdC) and intracyclic velocity variation (IVV) as a function of swim pace and gender is investigated. Twelve elite swimmers performed 5 different swim paces. Video analysis allowed IdC determination. The IVV was determined with a velocity-metre system. Results showed (i) a significant increase in IdC with(More)
The hip intracyclic velocity variability and the index of coordination in front crawl swimming were examined in relation to performance level. 22 swimmers were assigned to either an elite or a recreational swimming group and performed 4 swim trials at different paces relative to their individual maximum velocity. A velocity meter system was set to determine(More)
This study examines the relationships between the index of coordination (IdC) and active drag (D) assuming that at constant average speed, average drag equals average propulsion. The relationship between IdC and propulsive efficiency (ep) was also investigated at maximal speed. Twenty national swimmers completed two incremental speed tests swimming front(More)
We report on a Yb:YAG Innoslab laser amplifier system for generation of subpicsecond high energy pump pulses for optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) at high repetition rates. Pulse energies of up to 20 mJ (at 12.5 kHz) and repetition rates of up to 100 kHz were attained with pulse durations of 830 fs and average power in excess of 200 W.(More)
This study examined the variability of physiological, perceptual, stroke and coordination parameters in both genders during several swim trials at the 400-m pace speed. Twelve national level competitors (6 men, 6 women) swam 400-m at maximal speed. They then swam three additional trials (100, 200 and 300-m) at the pace (speed) of the previous 400-m. Three(More)
The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The(More)
The accuracy of a simple field test, the 3-minute, 30-second endurance capacity test (3'30'' ECT), was evaluated in 12 moderately trained athletes. It consisted of 10 3-minute running bouts, separated by 30-second passive recoveries. The first 5 bouts were performed at 75% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS, which was previously determined), and the last 5 were(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Index of Coordination (IdC) and the propulsive phase durations can differentiate performance level during a maximal 400-m front crawl swim trial. Sixteen male swimmers constituted two groups based on performance level (G1: experts; G2: recreational). All participants swam the 400-m front crawl at(More)
Spatio-temporal, metabolic and psychometric responses during and after a 400-m freestyle swim trial were investigated for gender and skill-level effects. Thirty-four men and women, 18 national and international competitors and 16 recreational swimmers, were compared. Mean speed, stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) were obtained from video recordings.(More)