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Citrulline (Cit, C6H13N3O3), which is a ubiquitous amino acid in mammals, is strongly related to arginine. Citrulline metabolism in mammals is divided into two fields: free citrulline and citrullinated proteins. Free citrulline metabolism involves three key enzymes: NO synthase (NOS) and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) which produce citrulline, and(More)
Protein energy malnutrition is common in the elderly, especially in hospitalized patients. The development of strategies designed to correct such malnutrition is essential. Our working hypothesis was that poor response to nutrition with advancing age might be related to splanchnic sequestration of amino acids, which implies that fewer amino acids reach the(More)
The molecular mechanisms by which liver genes are differentially expressed along a portocentral axis, allowing for metabolic zonation, are poorly understood. We provide here compelling evidence that the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays a key role in liver zonation. First, we show the complementary localization of activated beta-catenin in the perivenous area(More)
Previous experimental studies have highlighted that citrulline (CIT) could be a promising pharmaconutrient. However, its pharmacokinetic characteristics and tolerance to loading have not been studied to date. The objective was to characterise the plasma kinetics of CIT in a multiple-dosing study design and to assess the effect of CIT intake on the(More)
Classically, polyamines is a family of molecules (i.e. putrescine, spermine, spermidine) derived from ornithine according to a decarboxylation/condensative process. More recently, it has been demonstrated that arginine can be metabolised according to the same pathway leading to agmatine formation. Polyamines are essential for the growth, the maintenance and(More)
OBJECTIVES The benefit of arginine in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis is still controversial. An excessive supply of arginine could lead to an overproduction of nitric oxide and could be responsible for septic shock and multiorgan failure. However, this claim is not supported by any experimental or clinical data. We set out to determine(More)
OBJECTIVE Arginine supplementation seems logical in situations where this amino acid becomes essential, for example after massive intestinal resection. Arginine is taken up and metabolised by the liver to a large extent and its supplementation is potentially unsafe. Citrulline is not captured by the liver and passes freely to the kidneys where it is(More)
Endotoxemia affects intestinal physiology. A decrease of circulating citrulline concentration is considered as a reflection of the intestinal function. Citrulline can be produced in enterocytes notably from glutamate and glutamine. The aim of this work was to determine if glutamate, glutamine and citrulline concentrations in blood, intestine and muscle are(More)
Citrulline (CIT) is an amino acid that is not involved in protein synthesis but that is tightly linked to arginine (ARG) metabolism. CIT displays a very specific metabolism: In the 1980s, Windmuller demonstrated that the small intestine releases CIT, which is mainly taken up by the kidney and metabolized into ARG. Because CIT is not taken up by the liver,(More)
BACKGROUND Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are crucial in host defense against invading microorganisms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, generated ROS released in excess into media can damage the host tissue. It is therefore essential, when exploring oxygen species production, to discriminate between its intracellular (IC) and(More)