Christophe Bernard

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We studied the modulation of GABAergic inhibition by glutamate and kainate acting on GluR5-containing kainate receptors in the CA1 hippocampal region. Glutamate, kainate or ATPA, a selective agonist of GluR5-containing receptors, generates an inward current in inhibitory interneurons and cause repetitive action potential firing. This results in a massive(More)
Because blocking GABAergic neurotransmission in control tissue generates seizures and because GABA boosters control epilepsy in many patients, studies on epilepsies have been dominated by the axiom that seizures are generated by a failure of GABA-mediated inhibition. However, GABAergic interneurons and synapses are heterogeneous and have many roles that go(More)
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a pathogen implicated in several infant diarrhea or diarrheal outbreaks in areas of endemicity. Although multiple genes involved in EAEC pathogenesis have been identified, the overall mechanism of virulence is not well understood. Recently, a novel secretion system, called type VI secretion (T6S) system (T6SS),(More)
Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and(More)
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are bacteriophage-derived macromolecular machines responsible for the release of at least two proteins in the milieu, which are thought to form an extracellular appendage. Although several T6SS have been shown to be involved in the virulence of animal and plant pathogens, clusters encoding these machines are found in the(More)
Loss of consciousness (LOC) is a dramatic clinical manifestation of temporal lobe seizures. Its underlying mechanism could involve altered coordinated neuronal activity between the brain regions that support conscious information processing. The consciousness access hypothesis assumes the existence of a global workspace in which information becomes(More)
Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy in adults, often display cognitive deficits. The time course and underlying mechanisms of cognitive decline remain unknown during epileptogenesis (the process leading to epilepsy). Using the rat pilocarpine model of TLE, we performed a longitudinal study to assess spatial and(More)
A stressful event increases the risk of developing depression later in life, but the possible predisposing factors remain unknown. Our study aims to characterize latent vulnerability traits underlying the development of depressive disorders in adult animals. Four weeks after a priming stressful event, serum corticosterone concentration returned to control(More)
An increased ratio of the glutamatergic drive to the overall glutamatergic/GABAergic drive characterizes the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but it is unclear whether this modification is present during the latent period that often precedes the epileptic stage. Using the pilocarpine model of TLE in rats, we report that this ratio is decreased(More)
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are macromolecular, transenvelope machines encoded within the genomes of most Gram-negative bacteria, including plant, animal, and human pathogens, as well as soil and environmental isolates. T6SS are involved in a broad variety of functions: from pathogenesis to biofilm formation and stress sensing. This large array of(More)