Learn More
The body's surfaces form the interface with the external environment, protecting the host. These epithelial barriers are also colonized by a controlled diversity of microorganisms, disturbances of which can give rise to disease. Specialized intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), which reside at these sites, are important as a first line of defense as well as(More)
Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine linked to lung inflammation, but its cellular origin and function remain unclear. Here we describe a reporter mouse strain designed to map the fate of cells that have activated IL-9. We found that during papain-induced lung inflammation, IL-9 production was largely restricted to innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-9(More)
Here we describe a reporter mouse strain designed to map the fate of cells that have activated interleukin 17A (IL-17A). We found that IL-17-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) had distinct plasticity in different inflammatory settings. Chronic inflammatory conditions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) caused a switch to alternative(More)
How the immune system adapts to malnutrition to sustain immunity at barrier surfaces, such as the intestine, remains unclear. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with profound defects in adaptive immunity. Here, we found that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are severely diminished in vitamin(More)
IL-9 fate reporter mice established type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) as major producers of this cytokine in vivo. Here we focus on the role of IL-9 and ILC2s during the lung stage of infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which results in substantial tissue damage. IL-9 receptor (IL-9R)-deficient mice displayed reduced numbers of ILC2s in the lung(More)
The skin represents the primary interface between the host and the environment. This organ is also home to trillions of microorganisms that play an important role in tissue homeostasis and local immunity. Skin microbial communities are highly diverse and can be remodelled over time or in response to environmental challenges. How, in the context of this(More)
Since the discovery of T helper type 1 and type 2 effector T cell subsets 20 years ago, inducible regulatory T cells and interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper cells have been added to the 'portfolio' of helper T cells. It is unclear how many more effector T cell subsets there may be and to what degree their characteristics are fixed or flexible. Here we(More)
Intestinal commensal bacteria induce protective and regulatory responses that maintain host-microbial mutualism. However, the contribution of tissue-resident commensals to immunity and inflammation at other barrier sites has not been addressed. We found that in mice, the skin microbiota have an autonomous role in controlling the local inflammatory milieu(More)
Interleukin (IL)-22-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs; ILC22) comprise a heterogeneous population of cells that are dependent on the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan γt (RORγt) and are critical for barrier function of the intestinal mucosa. A distinct ILC22 subset expresses the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 (NKp46+ ILC22); however, the(More)
Tissue-infiltrating Ly6C(hi) monocytes play diverse roles in immunity, ranging from pathogen killing to immune regulation. How and where this diversity of function is imposed remains poorly understood. Here we show that during acute gastrointestinal infection, priming of monocytes for regulatory function preceded systemic inflammation and was initiated(More)