Christoph Wiegand

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In this paper, Bias-temperature instability (BTI) characterization on 45nm high-K + metal-gate (HK+MG) transistors is presented and degradation mechanism is discussed. Transistors with an un-optimized HK film stack in the early development phase exhibited pre-existing traps and large amount of hysteresis that was consistent with literature. The optimized(More)
Two key process features that are used to make 45nm generation metal gate + high-k gate dielectric CMOS transistors are highlighted in this paper. The first feature is the integration of stress-enhancement techniques with the dual metal-gate + high-k transistors. The second feature is the extension of 193nm dry lithography to the 45nm technology node(More)
In several areas of the Alps, steep grassland is characterized by shallow erosions. These erosions represent a hazard through the increased availability of unconsolidated material in steep locations, loss of soil and impaired landscape aesthetics. Generally, the erosions concern only small areas but sometimes occur in large numbers. Remote sensing(More)
Weyl semimetals are often considered the 3D-analogon of graphene or topological insulators. The evaluation of quantum oscillations in these systems remains challenging because there are often multiple conduction bands. We observe de Haas-van Alphen oscillations with several frequencies in a single crystal of the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide. For each(More)
By the rising complexity and miniaturisation of the device's dimensions, the density of the conductors increases considerably. Referring to this, locally transient interactions between single physical values become apparent. Therefore, for the investigation and optimisation of integrated circuits it is essential to develop suitable models and simulation(More)
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