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The SNARE complex is a key regulator of vesicular traffic, executing membrane fusion between transport vesicles or organelles and target membranes. A functional SNARE complex consists of four coiled-coil helical bundles, three of which are supplied by Q-SNAREs and another from an R-SNARE. Arabidopsis thaliana VAMP727 is an R-SNARE, with homologs only in(More)
Plasma membrane proteins internalized by endocytosis and targeted for degradation are sorted into lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana ESCRT-related CHARGED MULTIVESICULAR BODY PROTEIN/CHROMATIN MODIFYING PROTEIN1A (CHMP1A)(More)
Nerve injury leads to the release of a number of cytokines which have been shown to play an important role in cellular activation after peripheral nerve injury. The members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) gene family are the main mediators in the signal transduction pathway of cytokines. After phosphorylation, STAT proteins(More)
Plant endosomes are highly dynamic organelles that are involved in the constitutive recycling of plasma membrane cargo and the trafficking of polarized plasma membrane proteins such as auxin carriers. In addition, recent studies have shown that surface receptors such as the plant defense-related FLS2 receptor and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 appear to(More)
Direct injury of the brain is followed by inflammatory responses regulated by cytokines and chemoattractants secreted from resident glia and invading cells of the peripheral immune system. In contrast, after remote lesion of the central nervous system, exemplified here by peripheral transection or crush of the facial and hypoglossal nerve, the locally(More)
The monoclonal antibody Py has previously been shown to be a useful marker for subpopulations of neurons in the rat brain. However, the distribution of Py immunoreactivity in other regions of the CNS and PNS is not known. Here, we present a light and electron microscopic investigation into the distribution of Py immunoreactivity in the adult rat spinal(More)
The discovery that missense mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene represent a rare genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) has had significant impact on the development of research into neurodegenerative disorders. It is becoming increasingly clear that alpha-synuclein plays a central role in the pathological process, which causes Lewy body formation and(More)
The growth-associated protein GAP-43 (B-50) and the transcription factor C-Jun are involved in regeneration of the injured nervous system. In this study, we investigated the possibility of the induction of GAP-43 and C-Jun in axotomized neurons of Clarke's nucleus (CN) in adult rats, of which a large population undergoes degeneration several weeks after a(More)
The monoclonal antibody Py was initially developed as a tool for the identification of subpopulations of hippocampal neurons. Recently it has also been demonstrated to be a useful marker for other populations of midbrain and spinal cord neurons in which the antigen showed a strong colocalization with cytoskeletal elements. To assess the possible usefulness(More)
Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT)-III proteins mediate membrane remodeling and the release of endosomal intraluminal vesicles into multivesicular bodies. Here, we show that the ESCRT-III subunit paralogs CHARGED MULTIVESICULAR BODY PROTEIN1 (CHMP1A) and CHMP1B are required for autophagic degradation of plastid proteins in Arabidopsis(More)