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During cell division, mitotic spindles are assembled by microtubule-based motor proteins. The bipolar organization of spindles is essential for proper segregation of chromosomes, and requires plus-end-directed homotetrameric motor proteins of the widely conserved kinesin-5 (BimC) family. Hypotheses for bipolar spindle formation include the 'push-pull(More)
Tetrameric motor proteins of the Kinesin-5 family are essential for eukaryotic cell division. The microscopic mechanism by which Eg5, the vertebrate Kinesin-5, drives bipolar mitotic spindle formation remains unknown. Here we show in optical trapping experiments that full-length Eg5 moves processively and stepwise along microtubule bundles. Interestingly,(More)
Microtubule (MT) crosslinking proteins of the ase1p/PRC1/Map65 family play a major role in the construction of MT networks such as the mitotic spindle. Most homologs in this family have been shown to localize with a remarkable specificity to sets of MTs that overlap with an antiparallel relative orientation [1-4]. Regulatory proteins bind to(More)
Although assembly of the mitotic spindle is known to be a precisely controlled process, regulation of the key motor proteins involved remains poorly understood. In eukaryotes, homotetrameric kinesin-5 motors are required for bipolar spindle formation. Eg5, the vertebrate kinesin-5, has two modes of motion: an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent(More)
BACKGROUND Difficulties in prediction and early identification of (acute kidney injury) AKI have hindered the ability to develop preventive and therapeutic measures for this syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that a urine test measuring insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), both inducers(More)
Multiple lines of evidence implicate the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the noradrenergic (norepinephrine, NE) system in responding to stressful stimuli such as fear signals, suggesting hyperfunction of both in the development of stress-related pathologies including anxiety disorders. However, no causative link between elevated NE neurotransmission and BLA(More)
Sign languages represent an interesting niche for statistical machine translation that is typically hampered by the scarceness of suitable data, and most papers in this area apply only a few, well-known techniques that are not adapted to small-sized corpora. In this article, we analyze existing data collections and emphasize their quality and usability for(More)
The segregation of genetic material during mitosis is coordinated by the mitotic spindle, whose action depends upon the polarity patterns of its microtubules (MTs). Homotetrameric mitotic kinesin-5 motors can crosslink and slide adjacent spindle MTs, but it is unknown whether they or other motors contribute to establishing these MT polarity patterns. Here,(More)
In text-to-avatar translation systems, facial expressions and mouth patterns are a vital part of a natural sign language avatar animation. However, gloss-based corpora often lack detail with respect to such non-manual features. To create a translation system which can produce facial expressions and mouthings, a more fine-grained annotation is necessary. In(More)
Cells are active systems with molecular force generation that drives complex dynamics at the supramolecular scale. We present a quantitative study of molecular motions in cells over times from milliseconds to hours. Noninvasive tracking was accomplished by imaging highly stable near-infrared luminescence of single-walled carbon nanotubes targeted to(More)