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The problems addressed apply to both throughput-oriented and speedup-oriented multiprocessor systems, either at the user level or the operating-system level. basic definitions are provided. Communication and synchronization are briefly explained, and hardware-level and software-level synchronization mechanisms are discussed. The cache coherence problem is(More)
In highly-pipelined machines, instructions and data are prefetched and buffered in both the processor and the cache. This is done to reduce the average memory access latency and to take advantage of memory interleaving. Lock-up free caches are designed to avoid processor blocking on a cache miss. Write buffers are often included in a pipelined machine to(More)
This paper shows that cache coherence protocols can implement indivisible synchronization primitives reliably and can also enforce sequential consistency. Sequential consistency provides a commonly accepted model of behavior of multiprocessors. We derive a simple set of conditions needed to enforce sequential consistency in multiprocessors. These conditions(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Secretion of salivary protective factors in patient s with gastroesophageal reflux disease is impaired. However, the impact of physiological stimulus mastication on salivary protective factors output remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to measure salivary volume, pH, HCO3-, peptide growth factors, prostaglandin, mucin,(More)
High-performance multiprocessors must incorporate a high-bandwidth, short-latency memory aggregate to support maximal processor utilization. Cache memories are often used to meet this requirement. The performance of cache-based, shared-memory multiprocessors can suffer greatly from moderate cache miss rates because of the usually high ratio between(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow was performed in 29 patients with leukemia, aplastic anemia, or lymphoma who were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, and in 12 normals. T1-weighted coronal images (TR600/TE40) of the pelvis and proximal femurs demonstrated marrow pathology in adult patients. A simple MR grading system was developed(More)