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Immigrants to habitats occupied by conspecific organisms are usually expected to be competitively inferior, because residents may be locally adapted. If residents are inbred, however, mating between immigrants and residents results in offspring that may enjoy a fitness advantage from hybrid vigor. We demonstrate this effect experimentally in a natural(More)
Supergenes are tight clusters of loci that facilitate the co-segregation of adaptive variation, providing integrated control of complex adaptive phenotypes. Polymorphic supergenes, in which specific combinations of traits are maintained within a single population, were first described for 'pin' and 'thrum' floral types in Primula and Fagopyrum, but classic(More)
Allozyme variation at the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) locus in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) is associated with variation in flight metabolic rate, dispersal rate, fecundity and local population growth rate. To map allozyme to DNA variation and to survey putative functional variation in genomic DNA, we cloned the coding sequence of(More)
Inbreeding adversely affects life history traits as well as various other fitness-related traits, but its effect on cognitive traits remains largely unexplored, despite their importance to fitness of many animals under natural conditions. We studied the effects of inbreeding on aversive learning (avoidance of an odour previously associated with mechanical(More)
In many plants and animal species, asexuals are more common in marginal habitats such as high latitudes or altitudes than their closely related sexual counterparts. Here we propose a new hypothesis to explain this pattern called " geographic parthenogen-esis ". In marginal habitats, populations may often exist as metapopulations with high degrees of(More)
The deleterious effects of inbreeding have long been known, and inbreeding can increase the risk of extinction for local populations in metapopulations. However, other consequences of inbreeding in metapopulations are still not well understood. Here we show the presence of strong inbreeding depression in a rockpool metapopulation of the planktonic(More)
If colonization of empty habitat patches causes genetic bottlenecks, freshly founded, young populations should be genetically less diverse than older ones that may have experienced successive rounds of immigration. This can be studied in metapopulations with subpopulations of known age. We studied allozyme variation in metapopulations of two species of(More)
It has been proposed that parasitic infections increase selection against inbred genotypes. We tested this hypothesis experimentally using pairs of selfed and outcrossed sibling lines of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, which can be maintained clonally. We studied the performance of selfed relative to outcrossed sibling clones during repeated(More)
In metapopulations, only a fraction of all local host populations may be infected with a given parasite species, and limited dispersal of parasites suggests that colonization of host populations by parasites may involve only a small number of parasite strains. Using hosts and parasites obtained from a natural metapopulation, we studied the evolutionary(More)
In insects and crustaceans, the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) occurs in many different isoforms. These are produced by mutually exclusive alternative splicing of dozens of tandem duplicated exons coding for parts or whole immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of the Dscam protein. This diversity plays a role in the development of the nervous system and(More)