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BACKGROUND Several controlled studies provide evidence that treatment with interferon beta in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) delays conversion to clinically definite MS (CDMS). Our aim was to determine whether early initiation of treatment with interferon beta prevents development of confirmed disability in MS. METHODS(More)
The reliability of non-functional contracts is crucial for many software applications. This added to the increasing attention this issue lately received in software engineering. Another development in software engineering is toward component-based systems. The interaction of both, non-functional aspects and components, is a relatively new research area,(More)
BACKGROUND Prediction of susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) might have important clinical applications, either as part of a diagnostic algorithm or as a means to identify high-risk individuals for prospective studies. We investigated the usefulness of an aggregate measure of risk of MS that is based on genetic susceptibility loci. We also assessed(More)
Domain analysis involves not only looking at standard requirements documents (e.g., use case specifications) but also at customer information packs, market analyses, etc. Looking across all these documents and deriving, in a practical and scalable way, a feature model that is comprised of coherent abstractions is a fundamental and non-trivial challenge. We(More)
BACKGROUND In most patients, severity of valvular aortic stenosis can be accurately assessed non-invasively by echocardiography. However, retrograde catheterisation of the aortic valve is often undertaken. This procedure has a potential risk of neurological complications, with an unknown incidence of clinically silent embolism. We aimed to establish the(More)
Component-based applications require runtime support to be able to guarantee non-functional properties. This paper proposes an architecture for a real-time-capable, component-based runtime environment, which allows to separate non-functional and functional concerns in component-based software development. The architecture is presented with particular focus(More)
BACKGROUND The Betaferon/Betaseron in newly emerging multiple sclerosis for initial treatment (BENEFIT) trial investigated the effect of treatment with interferon beta-1b after a clinically isolated syndrome. The 5-year active treatment extension compares the effects of early and delayed treatment with interferon beta-1b on time to clinically definite(More)
OBJECTIVE To perform a 1-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and to explore functional consequences of new susceptibility loci. METHODS We synthesized 7 MS GWAS. Each data set was imputed using HapMap phase II, and a per single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) meta-analysis was performed(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is a non-invasive method to investigate changes in brain metabolite composition in different cerebral diseases. We performed proton spectroscopy in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD) and in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) with the aim to detect the specific metabolic pattern for(More)
IMPORTANCE It remains unclear whether vitamin D insufficiency, which is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), has an adverse effect on MS outcomes. OBJECTIVES To determine whether serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), a marker of vitamin D status, predict disease activity and prognosis in patients with a first event(More)