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AIMS To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. DESIGN Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23(More)
BACKGROUND Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based(More)
Human land uses and population growth represent major global threats to biodiversity and ecosystem services. Understanding how biological communities respond to multiple drivers of human-induced environmental change is fundamental for conserving ecosystems and remediating degraded habitats. Here, we used a replicated 'real-world experiment' to study the(More)
Wastewater analysis has been demonstrated to be a complementary approach for assessing the overall patterns of drug use by a population while the full potential of wastewater-based epidemiology has yet to be explored. F2-isoprostanes are a prototype wastewater biomarker to study the cumulative oxidative stress at a community level. In this work,(More)
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