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The removal efficiency for 220 micropollutants was studied at the scale of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgraded with post-ozonation followed by sand filtration. During post-ozonation, compounds with activated aromatic moieties, amine functions, or double bonds such as sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, or carbamazepine with second-order rate(More)
The aim of this study was to assess uncertainties associated with different sampling modes when evaluating loads of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewers and influents to sewage treatment plants (STPs). The study demonstrates that sampling uncertainty can range from "not significant" to "far greater than the uncertainty due to(More)
The analysis of 87 peer-reviewed journal articles reveals that sampling for pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and illicit drugs in sewers and sewage treatment plant influents is mostly carried out according to existing tradition or standard laboratory protocols. Less than 5% of all studies explicitly consider internationally acknowledged(More)
The presence of nitrosamines in wastewater might pose a risk to water resources even in countries where chlorination or chloramination are hardly used for water disinfection. We studied the variation of concentrations and removal efficiencies of eight N-nitrosamines among 21 full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Switzerland and temporal variations at(More)
Drug concentrations in composite municipal wastewater samples and census-based estimates of population are used to derive daily loads of illicit substances that are indexed to population. However, such estimates do not provide information on the diurnal trends of substance excretion nor can they account for changes in population. To address these(More)
Tertiary treatment of wastewater with ozone is a promising technique for removing residual micropollutants that remain after secondary biological treatment. We monitored the performance of a full-scale ozonation reactor on a sewage treatment plant in Switzerland with a screening battery of bioassays. Six toxicity endpoints were selected that covered(More)
The kinetics of oxidation and disinfection processes during ozonation in a full-scale reactor treating secondary wastewater effluent were investigated for seven ozone doses ranging from 0.21 to 1.24 g O(3) g(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Substances reacting fast with ozone, such as diclofenac or carbamazepine (k(P, O3) > 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), were(More)
AIMS To examine changes in illicit drug consumption between peak holiday season (23 December-3 January) in Australia and a control period two months later in a coastal urban area, an inland semi-rural area and an island populated predominantly by vacationers during holidays. DESIGN Analysis of representative daily composite wastewater samples collected(More)
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS Wastewater analysis provides a non-intrusive way of measuring drug use within a population. We used this approach to determine daily use of conventional illicit drugs [cannabis, cocaine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and emerging illicit psychostimulants (benzylpiperazine, mephedrone and methylone) in(More)
The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare illicit drug loads in Europe over a 1-week period. An(More)