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The presence of nitrosamines in wastewater might pose a risk to water resources even in countries where chlorination or chloramination are hardly used for water disinfection. We studied the variation of concentrations and removal efficiencies of eight N-nitrosamines among 21 full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Switzerland and temporal variations at(More)
The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare illicit drug loads in Europe over a 1-week period. An(More)
The aim of this study was to assess uncertainties associated with different sampling modes when evaluating loads of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewers and influents to sewage treatment plants (STPs). The study demonstrates that sampling uncertainty can range from "not significant" to "far greater than the uncertainty due to(More)
The analysis of 87 peer-reviewed journal articles reveals that sampling for pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and illicit drugs in sewers and sewage treatment plant influents is mostly carried out according to existing tradition or standard laboratory protocols. Less than 5% of all studies explicitly consider internationally acknowledged(More)
The removal efficiency for 220 micropollutants was studied at the scale of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgraded with post-ozonation followed by sand filtration. During post-ozonation, compounds with activated aromatic moieties, amine functions, or double bonds such as sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, or carbamazepine with second-order rate(More)
The aim of this study was to integrally address the uncertainty associated with all the steps used to estimate community drug consumption through the chemical analysis of sewage biomarkers of illicit drugs. Uncertainty has been evaluated for sampling, chemical analysis, stability of drug biomarkers in sewage, back-calculation of drug use (specific case of(More)
AIMS To discuss ethical issues that may arise in using WWA to monitor illicit drug use in the general population and in entertainment precincts, prisons, schools and work-places. METHOD Review current applications of WWA and identify ethical and social issues that may be raised with current and projected future uses of this method. RESULTS Wastewater(More)
Probabilistic material flow analysis and graph theory were combined to calculate predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in Swiss rivers: 543 river sections were used to assess the geographical variability of nano-TiO(2), nano-ZnO and nano-Ag, and flow measurements over a 20-year period at 21 locations served to(More)
The kinetics of oxidation and disinfection processes during ozonation in a full-scale reactor treating secondary wastewater effluent were investigated for seven ozone doses ranging from 0.21 to 1.24 g O(3) g(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Substances reacting fast with ozone, such as diclofenac or carbamazepine (k(P, O3) > 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), were(More)
Drug concentrations in composite municipal wastewater samples and census-based estimates of population are used to derive daily loads of illicit substances that are indexed to population. However, such estimates do not provide information on the diurnal trends of substance excretion nor can they account for changes in population. To address these(More)