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Recent contributions from DNA sequences have revolutionized our concept of systematic relationships in angiosperms. However, parts of the angiosperm tree remain unclear. Previous studies have been based on coding or rDNA regions of relatively conserved genes. A phylogeny for basal angiosperms based on noncoding, fast-evolving sequences of the chloroplast(More)
Plastid matK gene sequences for 374 genera representing all angiosperm orders and 12 genera of gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Traditionally, slowly evolving genomic regions have been preferred for deep-level phylogenetic inference in angiosperms. The matK gene evolves approximately three times faster(More)
The cuticle of terrestrial vascular plants and some bryophytes is covered with a complex mixture of lipids, usually called epicuticular waxes. Self-assembly processes of wax molecules lead to crystalline three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures that emerge from an underlying wax film. This paper presents the first AFM study on wax regeneration on the(More)
The wetting and the self-cleaning properties (the latter is often called the "Lotus-Effect") of three types of superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated: silicon wafer specimens with different regular arrays of spikes hydrophobized by chemical treatment, replicates of water-repellent leaves of plants, and commercially available metal foils which were(More)
Root contraction has been described for many species within the plant kingdom for over a century, and many suggestions have been made for mechanisms behind these contractions. To move the foliage buds deeper into the soil, the proximal part of the storage root of Trifolium pratense contracts by up to 30%. Anatomical studies have shown undeformed fibres next(More)
Regeneration of plant epicuticular waxes was studied in 24 plant species by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. According to their regeneration behaviour, four groups could be distinguished: (i) regeneration occurs at all stages of development; (ii) regeneration occurs only during leaf expansion; (iii) regeneration occurs only in fully developed(More)
Many plant surfaces are water-repellent because of a complex 3-dimensional microstructure of the epidermal cells (papillae) and a superimposed layer of hydrophobic wax crystals. Due to its surface tension, water does not spread on such surfaces but forms spherical droplets that lie only on the tips of the microstructures. Studying six species with heavily(More)
Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic(More)
*Catching insects to ensure pollination is one of the most elaborate and specialized mechanisms of insect-plant interactions. Phylogenetically, Aristolochiaceae represent the first angiosperm lineage that developed trap flowers. Here we report the structure and function of specific trichomes contributing to the highly specialized trapping devices.(More)
The genus Peperomia is one of the largest genera of basal angiosperms, comprising about 1500-1700 pantropically distributed species. The currently accepted infrageneric classification divides Peperomia into nine subgenera and seven sections. This classification is based on some 200 species, primarily using fruit morphology. The monophyly of these(More)