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Recent contributions from DNA sequences have revolutionized our concept of systematic relationships in angiosperms. However, parts of the angiosperm tree remain unclear. Previous studies have been based on coding or rDNA regions of relatively conserved genes. A phylogeny for basal angiosperms based on noncoding, fast-evolving sequences of the chloroplast(More)
Plastid matK gene sequences for 374 genera representing all angiosperm orders and 12 genera of gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Traditionally, slowly evolving genomic regions have been preferred for deep-level phylogenetic inference in angiosperms. The matK gene evolves approximately three times faster(More)
The microrelief of plant surfaces, mainly caused by epicuticular wax crystalloids, serves different purposes and often causes effective water repellency. Furthermore, the adhesion of contaminating particles is reduced. Based on experimental data carried out on microscopically smooth (Fagus sylvatica L., Gnetum gnemon L., Heliconia densiflora Verlot,(More)
Piperales represent the largest basal angiosperm order with a nearly worldwide distribution. The order includes three species rich genera, Piper (ca. 2000 species), Peperomia (ca. 1500-1700 species), and Aristolochia s. l. (ca. 500 species). Sequences of the matK gene and the non-coding trnK group II intron are analysed for a dense set of 105 taxa(More)
The genus Peperomia is one of the largest genera of basal angiosperms, comprising about 1500-1700 pantropically distributed species. The currently accepted infrageneric classification divides Peperomia into nine subgenera and seven sections. This classification is based on some 200 species, primarily using fruit morphology. The monophyly of these(More)
The cuticle of terrestrial vascular plants and some bryophytes is covered with a complex mixture of lipids, usually called epicuticular waxes. Self-assembly processes of wax molecules lead to crystalline three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures that emerge from an underlying wax film. This paper presents the first AFM study on wax regeneration on the(More)
The control of growth rate and the mechanical integrity of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit has been attributed to the exocarp. This study focused on the biomechanics of the fruit skin (FS) comprising cuticle, epidermis and a few subdermal cell layers, and the enzymatically isolated cuticular membrane (CM) during fruit growth and ripening.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The species-poor and little-studied genus Verhuellia has often been treated as a synonym of the genus Peperomia, downplaying its significance in the relationships and evolutionary aspects in Piperaceae and Piperales. The lack of knowledge concerning Verhuellia is largely due to its restricted distribution, poorly known collection(More)
Aristolochiaceae, a family of worldwide distribution comprising about 500 species, is a member of Piperales. Although Piperales is clearly monophyletic, the precise relationship within the order is ambiguous due to inconsistent placement of Lactoris fernandeziana. The appearance in some studies of Lactoris within Aristolochiaceae and the incongruence in(More)
Peperomia is with approximately 1,600 species one of the species rich angiosperm genera. Several characters on which current infrageneric classifications are based are influenced by parallel evolution. A well-resolved molecular backbone phylogeny of the genus is needed to address evolutionary questions about morphological traits. Based on separate and(More)