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The first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the replacement of the hematopoietic system, by hematopoietic stem cells from the patient (autologous HSCT) or from another person (allogeneic HSCT), was performed almost 45 years ago. Today autologous HSCT is used to bridge hematopoietic failure after high dose chemotherapy for the treatment of(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel wall. The A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) plays a central role in many antiinflammatory effects of adenosine. However, the role of A(2A)R in atherosclerosis is not clear. METHODS AND RESULTS The knockout of A(2A)R in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)/A(2A)R(-/-)) mice led to(More)
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is initiated after activation of donor T cells by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed by APCs and parenchymal cells and is further inducible by inflammation. We investigated whether lethal conditioning and GVHD induce IDO and if IDO prevents tissue(More)
The diagnostic and clinical usefulness of a powered bone marrow biopsy device (OnControl()) versus a standard manual device (TRAP Hospital System) was studied. Primary endpoints were biopsy quality and patient pain during the procedure. Fifty patients underwent a total of 60 procedures by three expert operators in a randomised stratified fashion. Baseline(More)
Nfatc2 and Tob1 are intrinsic negative regulators of T cell activation. Nfatc2-deficient and Tob1-deficient T cells show reduced thresholds of activation; however, whether these factors have independent or overlapping roles in negative regulation of T cell responses has not been previously examined. Here, we show that Nfatc2 knockout (KO) but not Tob1 KO(More)
We present the concept of an 'epileptic syndrome' which is important for prognostic statements and the application of appropriate therapeutic measures. We then discuss the epileptic seizure and the assessment of suspected seizure, indications for admission to a hospital, diagnostic measures (EEG, CT scan, laboratory tests, lumbal puncture, MRI scan, PET(More)
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