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Neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are thought to play an important role in neuronal repair and plasticity. Recent experimental evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of these proteins in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the response of serum NGF and BDNF concentrations to standardized acute(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise may have beneficial effects on both well-being and walking ability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise is shown to be neuroprotective in rodents and may also enhance cognitive function in humans. It may, therefore, be particularly useful for MS patients with pronounced neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE To investigate the potential of(More)
In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of(More)
BACKGROUND Fatigue is a major complaint of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, little is known about its pathophysiological mechanisms. Evidence from chronic fatigue syndrome and studies on sickness behaviour suggest that immune and neuroendocrine factors may play a causative role in the development of fatigue. METHODS We compared whole blood(More)
OBJECTIVE Depression and fatigue are among the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). These symptoms frequently co-occur and partially overlap in MS but their underlying biological substrates are unclear. In this study, the relative role of cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in depression and fatigue were examined in(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of Modafinil on focused attention, motor function and motor excitability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and fatigue. METHODS 21 MS patients with fatigue were enrolled in this double-blind placebo-controlled study. Modafinil (MOD) or placebo (PL) was administered for 8 weeks. The d2 alertness test, the Nine(More)
OBJECTIVE To reassess the effect of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting artificial psychostimulant, on fatigue and neuropsychological measures in patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a baseline score of ≥4 on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score <7 were eligible for the(More)
In patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), IVIG was shown to reduce the relapse rate and progression of disability. In patients with chronic progressive MS, a beneficial effect of IVIG was not documented in placebo controlled studies. This trial investigated the influence of IVIG in primary (PPMS) and secondary (SPMS) chronic progressive(More)
OBJECTIVES The need for an early disclosure of the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has become more pressing with the publication of two recent randomized trials which have indicated that very early treatment may favourably alter the disease course. We assessed the current status of diagnostic and therapeutic information on MS from the point of view of(More)