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OBJECTIVE Depression and fatigue are among the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). These symptoms frequently co-occur and partially overlap in MS but their underlying biological substrates are unclear. In this study, the relative role of cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in depression and fatigue were examined in(More)
In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of(More)
Neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are thought to play an important role in neuronal repair and plasticity. Recent experimental evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of these proteins in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the response of serum NGF and BDNF concentrations to standardized acute(More)
We investigated electrophysiological correlates of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to explore motor excitability in three groups of subjects: MS patients with fatigue (MS-F), MS patients without fatigue (MS-NF) and healthy control subjects. All participants had to perform a fatiguing(More)
Patient self-report health measures have received increasing recognition as supplementary outcome parameters in multiple sclerosis (MS). Given the high prevalence of cognitive problems in this population, reliability and validity of self-report instruments in patient groups with cognitive impairment is essential, especially when using such scales(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a heterogeneous disease with varying clinical picture. There have been substantial efforts to develop outcome measurements for therapeutic interventions but very few studies have addressed the value of bodily functions from the patient perspective. In a randomly selected cohort of early (<5 years, n=84) and longer lasting disease(More)
Cognitive impairment is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. A number of pathogenetic correlates have previously been proposed including psychosocial factors (such as depression and fatigue), inflammation, neurodegeneration, and neuroendocrine dysregulation. However,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between childhood trauma and multiple sclerosis (MS) by comparing histories of child abuse and neglect between patients with MS and adults from the general population in a cross-sectional case-control study. Previous research has demonstrated a connection between MS and a variety of emotional stressors, but childhood(More)
Since the earliest descriptions psychological and physical stress has been considered a controversial but potentially important factor in the onset and course of multiple sclerosis (MS). During recent years it has become clear that MS patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training. As acute exercise has profound effects on immune(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. An impaired hypothalamopituitary axis and stress reactivity have extensively been discussed without convincing experimental evidence. We choose a standardized acute psychological stressor to determine whether MS patients show altered endocrine and immune responses to(More)