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Neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are thought to play an important role in neuronal repair and plasticity. Recent experimental evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of these proteins in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the response of serum NGF and BDNF concentrations to standardized acute(More)
In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of(More)
OBJECTIVE Depression and fatigue are among the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). These symptoms frequently co-occur and partially overlap in MS but their underlying biological substrates are unclear. In this study, the relative role of cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in depression and fatigue were examined in(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise may have beneficial effects on both well-being and walking ability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise is shown to be neuroprotective in rodents and may also enhance cognitive function in humans. It may, therefore, be particularly useful for MS patients with pronounced neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE To investigate the potential of(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of Modafinil on focused attention, motor function and motor excitability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and fatigue. METHODS 21 MS patients with fatigue were enrolled in this double-blind placebo-controlled study. Modafinil (MOD) or placebo (PL) was administered for 8 weeks. The d2 alertness test, the Nine(More)
OBJECTIVE To reassess the effect of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting artificial psychostimulant, on fatigue and neuropsychological measures in patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a baseline score of ≥4 on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score <7 were eligible for the(More)
In patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), IVIG was shown to reduce the relapse rate and progression of disability. In patients with chronic progressive MS, a beneficial effect of IVIG was not documented in placebo controlled studies. This trial investigated the influence of IVIG in primary (PPMS) and secondary (SPMS) chronic progressive(More)
OBJECTIVES Until now, the significance of plasma exchange (PE) as a treatment for steroid-unresponsive optic neuritis (ON) is still unclear because placebo-controlled and larger studies are missing. We report our experience with 23 patients treated by PE due to steroid-unresponsive ON. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were admitted to the University Medical(More)
Quality of life (QoL) is discussed as an additional outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, few questionnaires assessing disease specific QoL in MS have been published. On the basis of the literature and interviews with clinicians and MS patients, we have developed a disease specific QoL instrument and validated it in a broad range of patients(More)
Cognitive impairment is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. A number of pathogenetic correlates have previously been proposed including psychosocial factors (such as depression and fatigue), inflammation, neurodegeneration, and neuroendocrine dysregulation. However,(More)