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Considerable evidence indicates disturbances in the ionic gradient of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of neurones in human epileptogenic tissues. Two contending mechanisms have been proposed, reduced outward and increased inward Cl⁻ transporters. We investigated the properties of Cl⁻ transport in human and rat neocortical neurones (layer II/III) using(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of patients with NES vs. NES and concomitant epilepsy in an epilepsy centre and to present a diagnostic algorithm. We collected and reviewed the data of 322 patients consecutively referred to the adult ward of our epilepsy centre in 1 year. The results of our study reveal that 44 (14%) of all patients(More)
PURPOSE Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (I(H)) play a pivotal role in the control of neuronal excitability. In animal models of epilepsy both increases and decreases of I(H) have been reported. We, therefore, characterized properties of I(H) in human epileptogenic neocortex. METHODS Layer II/III neurons in slices from epilepsy surgery tissues(More)
Several reference genes have been used to quantify gene expression in human epilepsy surgery tissue. However, their reliability has not been validated in detail, although this is crucial in interpreting epilepsy-related changes of gene expression. We evaluated 12 potential reference genes in neocortical tissues resected from patients with temporal lobe(More)
Anomalous hippocampal inhibition is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, and reduced gephyrin immunoreactivity in the temporal lobe epilepsy hippocampus has been reported recently. However, the mechanisms responsible for curtailing postsynaptic gephyrin scaffolds are poorly understood. Here, we have investigated gephyrin expression in the hippocampus of(More)
In the scenario of refractory status epilepticus, the recommended approach of intensive care treatment is limited with respect to the available pharmacodynamic variability and its impeding, severe side effects. Alternative treatment options are therefore urgently needed. In the case described, a patient with nonlesional frontal lobe epilepsy had a(More)
The normal function of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition is governed by several factors, including release of GABA, subunit composition and density of the receptors and in particular by the appropriate ionic gradient. In the human epileptogenic neocortex an impaired chloride (Cl(-)) gradient has been proposed, due to decreases of potassium-coupled chloride(More)
Gap junctions (GJ) have been implicated in the synchronization of epileptiform activities induced by 4-aminopyrine (4AP) in slices from human epileptogenic cortex. Previous evidence implicated glial GJ to govern the frequency of these epileptiform events. The synchrony of these events (evaluated by the phase unlocking index, PUI) in adjacent areas however(More)
Acetylcholine has been implicated in higher cortical functions such as learning, memory and cognition, yet the cellular effects of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation are poorly understood in the human cortex. Here we investigated the effect of the mAChR agonist carbachol (CCh) and various mAChR antagonists in human cortical slices (from(More)