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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T cell-mediated, inflammatory disease with similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. Intranasal (i.n.) administration of a myelin basic protein (MBP)-derived peptide can protect susceptible mice from EAE. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, however, remain unclear. To analyze the(More)
BACKGROUND Tissue mast cell numbers are dynamically regulated by recruitment of progenitors from the vasculature. It is unclear whether progenitors are recruited during allergic sensitization and whether recruitment promotes allergic responses. OBJECTIVE We sought to (1) determine the effect of mast cell recruitment on acute allergic responses and (2) to(More)
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an uncommon eruption most often provoked by drugs, by acute infections with enteroviruses, or by mercury. It is characterized by acute, extensive formation of nonfollicular sterile pustules on erythematous background, fever, and peripheral blood leukocytosis. We present clinical and immunological data on(More)
PKC isoforms tau, alpha, and beta play fundamental roles in the activation of T cells and other immune cell functions. Here we show that the PKC inhibitor AEB071 both abolishes the production of several cytokines by activated human T cells, keratinocytes, and macrophages in vitro and inhibits an acute allergic contact dermatitis response in rats. To(More)
Neutralizing antibodies are necessary and sufficient for protection against infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The in vitro neutralization capacities and in vivo protective capacities of a panel of immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies to the glycoprotein of VSV were evaluated. In vitro, neutralizing activity correlated with avidity and with(More)
BACKGROUND Immune-mediated adverse reactions to drugs are often due to T-cell reactivity, and cross-reactivity is an important problem in pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether chemical inert drugs can stimulate T cells through their T-cell receptor (TCR) and analyzed the cross-reactivities to related compounds. METHODS We transfected human(More)
OBJECTIVE We have previously reported that the kinase activity of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) is important for Toll-like receptor and interleukin-1 receptor signaling in vitro. Using mice devoid of IRAK-4 kinase activity (IRAK-4 KD mice), we undertook this study to determine the importance of IRAK-4 kinase function in complex disease(More)
Drugs like sulfamethoxazole (SMX) or lidocaine can be presented to specific human alphabeta+ T cell clones (TCC) by undergoing a noncovalent association with MHC-peptide complexes on HLA-matched APCs. For a better understanding of the molecular basis of the recognition of such drugs by specific TCC, we investigated 1) the fine specificity of the recognizing(More)
The T cell co-stimulatory receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 appear to have opposite effects on T cell activation, mediating augmentation and inhibition of T cell responses respectively. Since these two receptors use the same ligands, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2), the co-ordinate timing of CD28 and CTLA-4 expression has a major impact on the regulation of immune(More)
Studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in conventional and transgenic mouse models have clarified mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance to myelin antigens. It is now clear that myelin antigens are expressed in the thymus and their expression can influence generation of the potential autoimmune T-cell repertoire. How autoreactive T(More)