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Solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices have gained serious attention during the last few years and are established as one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies for low cost power production. This article reviews the OPV development highlights of the last two decades, and summarizes the key milestones(More)
Two criteria for processing additives introduced to control the morphology of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) materials for use in solar cells have been identified: (i) selective (differential) solubility of the fullerene component and (ii) higher boiling point than the host solvent. Using these criteria, we have investigated the class of 1,8-di(R)octanes with(More)
Recently, researchers have paid a great deal of attention to the research and development of organic solar cells, leading to a breakthrough of over 10% power conversion efficiency. Though impressive, further development is required to ensure a bright industrial future for organic photovoltaics. Relatively narrow spectral overlap of organic polymer(More)
Organic photovoltaics in a flexible wire format has potential advantages that are described in this paper. A wire format requires long-distance transport of current that can be achieved only with conventional metals, thus eliminating the use of transparent oxide semiconductors. A phase-separated, photovoltaic layer, comprising a conducting polymer and a(More)
The technological attraction in organic solar cells is their compatibility to printing processes. However, up to today, nearly no literature on "printed" organic solar cells have been published and the major body of the research work was done by spin coating or blading techniques. Transferring the spin-coating or doctor blading process currently used for(More)
With the aim of utilizing the infrared region of solar radiation to improve solar cell performance, significant progress, including theoretical analysis and experimental achievement, has been made in the field of up-conversion for photovoltaic applications. This Research News article reviews recent progress in the development of rear-earth (RE) ion doped(More)
Sustainable biomass production is expected to be one of the major supporting pillars for future energy supply, as well as for renewable material provision. Algal beds represent an exciting resource for biomass/biofuel, fine chemicals and CO2 storage. Similar to other solar energy harvesting techniques, the efficiency of algal photosynthesis depends on the(More)
The performance of organic photovoltaic devices based upon bulk heterojunction blends of donor and acceptor materials has been shown to be highly dependent on the thin film microstructure. In this tutorial review, we discuss the factors responsible for influencing blend microstructure and how these affect device performance. In particular we discuss how(More)