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Traumatic brain injury is followed by increased extracellular glutamate concentration. Uptake of glutamate is mainly mediated by the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1. Extent and distribution of GLAST and GLT-1 were studied in a rat model of controlled cortical impact injury (CCII). Western Blot analysis revealed lowest levels of GLAST and GLT-1(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18), which is cleaved into its functionally active form by caspase-1. Resident cells of the CNS express IL-18 and caspase-1 constitutively, thus providing a local IL-18-dependent immune response. Recent studies have highlighted a(More)
Pharmacological blockade of NMDA receptor function induces apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain. However, the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives represents a difficult-to-avoid clinical practice in pediatrics. This warrants the search for adjunctive neuroprotective measures that will prevent or ameliorate(More)
The pathological mechanisms underlying neurological deficits observed in individuals born prematurely are not completely understood. A common form of injury in the preterm population is periventricular white matter injury (PWMI), a pathology associated with impaired brain development. To mitigate or eliminate PWMI, there is an urgent need to understand the(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypoxia induces transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) genes. We set up the hypothesis that elevated intracranial pressure in patients with hydrocephalus triggers release of VEGF and EPO into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS AND RESULTS VEGF and EPO concentrations, measured in 57 CSF aliquots(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuroendoscopic procedures became essential in neurosurgical treatment of disturbed cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. While a vast number of papers report on the neuroendoscopic experience for adults and children, no series so far reported on techniques and indications for neonate infants. We present our experience for the feasibility of(More)
Substantial neurologic morbidity occurs in survivors of premature birth. Premature infants are exposed to partial oxygen pressures that are fourfold higher compared to intrauterine conditions, even if no supplemental oxygen is administered. Here we report that short exposures to nonphysiologic oxygen levels can trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in the(More)
Propofol and sevoflurane are commonly used drugs in pediatric anesthesia. Exposure of newborn rats to a variety of anesthetics has been shown to induce apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Newborn Wistar rats were treated with repeated intraperitoneal injections of propofol or sevoflurane inhalation and compared to controls. Brains were(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic approach to microcephaly in childhood and to identify the prevalence of the various underlying causes/disease entities. METHOD We conducted a retrospective study on a cohort of 680 children with microcephaly (399 males, 281 females; mean age at presentation 7-8mo, range 1mo-5y) from patients(More)
Induced hypothermia is the only therapy with proven efficacy to reduce brain damage after perinatal asphyxia. While hypothermia down-regulates global protein synthesis and cell metabolism, low temperature induces a small subset of proteins that includes the RNA-binding protein RBM3 (RNA-binding motif protein 3), which has recently been implicated in cell(More)