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Traumatic brain injury is followed by increased extracellular glutamate concentration. Uptake of glutamate is mainly mediated by the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1. Extent and distribution of GLAST and GLT-1 were studied in a rat model of controlled cortical impact injury (CCII). Western Blot analysis revealed lowest levels of GLAST and GLT-1(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18), which is cleaved into its functionally active form by caspase-1. Resident cells of the CNS express IL-18 and caspase-1 constitutively, thus providing a local IL-18-dependent immune response. Recent studies have highlighted a(More)
The pathological mechanisms underlying neurological deficits observed in individuals born prematurely are not completely understood. A common form of injury in the preterm population is periventricular white matter injury (PWMI), a pathology associated with impaired brain development. To mitigate or eliminate PWMI, there is an urgent need to understand the(More)
Pharmacological blockade of NMDA receptor function induces apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain. However, the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives represents a difficult-to-avoid clinical practice in pediatrics. This warrants the search for adjunctive neuroprotective measures that will prevent or ameliorate(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypoxia induces transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) genes. We set up the hypothesis that elevated intracranial pressure in patients with hydrocephalus triggers release of VEGF and EPO into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS AND RESULTS VEGF and EPO concentrations, measured in 57 CSF aliquots(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuroendoscopic procedures became essential in neurosurgical treatment of disturbed cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. While a vast number of papers report on the neuroendoscopic experience for adults and children, no series so far reported on techniques and indications for neonate infants. We present our experience for the feasibility of(More)
Substantial neurologic morbidity occurs in survivors of premature birth. Premature infants are exposed to partial oxygen pressures that are fourfold higher compared to intrauterine conditions, even if no supplemental oxygen is administered. Here we report that short exposures to nonphysiologic oxygen levels can trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in the(More)
Propofol and sevoflurane are commonly used drugs in pediatric anesthesia. Exposure of newborn rats to a variety of anesthetics has been shown to induce apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Newborn Wistar rats were treated with repeated intraperitoneal injections of propofol or sevoflurane inhalation and compared to controls. Brains were(More)
Induced hypothermia is the only therapy with proven efficacy to reduce brain damage after perinatal asphyxia. While hypothermia down-regulates global protein synthesis and cell metabolism, low temperature induces a small subset of proteins that includes the RNA-binding protein RBM3 (RNA-binding motif protein 3), which has recently been implicated in cell(More)
Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as an effective neuroprotective therapy for cardiac arrest survivors. There are a number of purported mechanisms for therapeutic hypothermia, but the exact mechanism still remains to be elucidated. Although hypothermia generally down-regulates protein synthesis and metabolism in mammalian cells, a small subset of(More)