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Although the fact that genetic predisposition and environmental exposures interact to shape development and function of the human brain and, ultimately, the risk of psychiatric disorders has drawn wide interest, the corresponding molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We found that a functional polymorphism altering chromatin interaction between(More)
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increased levels of glucocorticoid hormones in patients with depression have mostly been ascribed to impaired feedback regulation of the HPA axis, possibly caused by altered function of the receptor for glucocorticoid hormones, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Antidepressants, in turn,(More)
Antidepressants increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animal models, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used human hippocampal progenitor cells to investigate the molecular pathways involved in the antidepressant-induced modulation of neurogenesis. Because our previous studies have shown that antidepressants regulate(More)
To improve the 'personalized-medicine' approach to the treatment of depression, we need to identify biomarkers that, assessed before starting treatment, predict future response to antidepressants ('predictors'), as well as biomarkers that are targeted by antidepressants and change longitudinally during the treatment ('targets'). In this study, we tested the(More)
Increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. Here, we show for the first time how IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine shown to be increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. IL-1β was detrimental to neurogenesis, as shown by a decrease in(More)
Stress and glucocorticoid hormones regulate hippocampal neurogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are poorly understood. Here we identify the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target gene, serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), as one such mechanism. Using a human hippocampal progenitor cell line, we found that a small(More)
Stress and glucocorticoid hormones regulate hippocampal neurogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their effects are unknown. We, therefore, investigated the molecular signaling pathways mediating the effects of cortisol on proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and astrogliogenesis, in an immortalized human hippocampal progenitor cell line. In(More)
Major depression is thought to originate from the interaction between susceptibility genes and adverse environmental events, in particular stress. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major system involved in stress response and its dysregulation is an important element in the pathogenesis of depression. The stress response is therefore(More)
The pathogenesis of antipsychotic-induced disturbances of glucose homeostasis is still unclear. Increased visceral adiposity has been suggested to be a possible mediating mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate, in an animal model, the differential effects of olanzapine and haloperidol on visceral fat deposition (using magnetic resonance(More)
As there is strong evidence for inflammation and oxidative stress in depression, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between oxidative imbalance and cellular immune response and to ask whether these processes are linked with iron metabolism in depressed patients. Blood was collected from patients diagnosed with recurrent depressive(More)