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INTRODUCTION Hypoxia induces transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) genes. We set up the hypothesis that elevated intracranial pressure in patients with hydrocephalus triggers release of VEGF and EPO into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS AND RESULTS VEGF and EPO concentrations, measured in 57 CSF aliquots(More)
Traumatic brain injury is followed by increased extracellular glutamate concentration. Uptake of glutamate is mainly mediated by the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1. Extent and distribution of GLAST and GLT-1 were studied in a rat model of controlled cortical impact injury (CCII). Western Blot analysis revealed lowest levels of GLAST and GLT-1(More)
Pulmonary surfactant is essential to maintain alveolar patency, and invariably fatal neonatal lung disease has been recognized to involve mutations in the genes encoding surfactant protein-B or ATP-binding cassette transporter family member ABCA3. The lipid transporter ABCA3 targets surfactant phospholipids to lamellar bodies that are lysosomal-derived(More)
Pharmacological blockade of NMDA receptor function induces apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain. However, the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives represents a difficult-to-avoid clinical practice in pediatrics. This warrants the search for adjunctive neuroprotective measures that will prevent or ameliorate(More)
Glutamate antagonists limit the growth of human cancers in vitro. The mechanism of anticancer action of NMDA antagonists is not known, however. In this article, we report that the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine inhibits the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that is activated by growth factors and controls the(More)
IMPORTANCE Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) preserves surfactant and keeps the lung open but is insufficient in severe surfactant deficiency. Traditional surfactant administration is related to short periods of positive pressure ventilation and implies the risk of lung injury.(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18), which is cleaved into its functionally active form by caspase-1. Resident cells of the CNS express IL-18 and caspase-1 constitutively, thus providing a local IL-18-dependent immune response. Recent studies have highlighted a(More)
The pathological mechanisms underlying neurological deficits observed in individuals born prematurely are not completely understood. A common form of injury in the preterm population is periventricular white matter injury (PWMI), a pathology associated with impaired brain development. To mitigate or eliminate PWMI, there is an urgent need to understand the(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuroendoscopic procedures became essential in neurosurgical treatment of disturbed cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. While a vast number of papers report on the neuroendoscopic experience for adults and children, no series so far reported on techniques and indications for neonate infants. We present our experience for the feasibility of(More)