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Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are susceptible to a variety of attacks that threaten their operation and the provided services. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) may act as defensive mechanisms, since they monitor network activities in order to detect malicious actions performed by intruders, and then initiate the appropriate countermeasures. IDS for(More)
The ratio of teichoic acid to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in a strain of Streptococcus agalactiae type III was found to be 8:1, with the total amount of LTA being 0.1% of the dry weight of the organism. Purified teichoic acid contained D-alanine and possibly a small amount of D-glucose and was approximately 22 glycerol phosphate units in length. The linkage(More)
Streptococcus pyogenes pregrown on lactose took up glucose, lactose, or methyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (MeSGal or TMG) by a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. MeSGal accumulated in the cell as MeSGal-phosphate (MeSGalP). Three effects were noted when various sugars were added to MeSGal preloaded cells: (i) no decrease in(More)
A stabilized L-form of Streptococcus pyogenes continues to synthesize glycerol teichoic acid. This polymer was obtained from S. pyogenes and its L-form, treated in identical fashion, and compared. Highly purified glycerol teichoic acid from only the L-form was found to be devoid of d-alanine and to have a shorter chain length. Otherwise, the glycerol(More)
The mechanism of methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside-phosphate (TMG-P) expulsion from Streptococcus pyogenes was studied. The expulsion elicited by glucose was not due to exchange vectorial transphosphorylation between the expelled TMG and the incoming glucose since more beta-galactoside was displaced than glucose taken up, and the stoichiometry between TMG and(More)
Minimally subcultured clinical isolates of virulent nephritogenic and nonnephritogenic Streptococcus pyogenes of the same serotype showed major differences in lipoteichoic acid (LTA) production, secretion, and structure. These were related to changes in coccal adherence to and destruction of growing human skin cell monolayers in vitro. A possible(More)