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Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling is most often performed using non-linear mixed-effects models based on ordinary differential equations with uncorrelated intra-individual residuals. More sophisticated residual error models as e.g. stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with measurement noise can in many cases provide a better description of the(More)
PURPOSE The objective of the present analysis was to explore the use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling. METHODS The intra-individual variability in nonlinear mixed-effects models based on SDEs is decomposed into two types of noise: a measurement and a system noise term. The(More)
Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the in vivo system of insulin and glucose and to estimate model and derived PK/PD parameters. The concept behind grey-box modelling consists in using a priori physiological knowledge along with information from(More)
Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling consists of using stochastic differential equations (SDEs) where(More)
AIMS To develop a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis describing the changes in luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations following treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin and the GnRH receptor blocker degarelix. METHODS Fifty-eight(More)
The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as long as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-linear mixed(More)
To increase our understanding of important subject characteristics and design variables affecting the performance of oral moxifloxacin in thorough QT studies, population pharmacokinetic and concentration-QTc models were developed by pooling data from 20 studies. A 1-compartment model with first-order elimination described the pharmacokinetics. Absorption(More)
The criterion for assessing whether a drug prolongs QT as described in the International Conference on Harmonization topic E14 guideline does not explicitly account for individual drug concentrations. The authors' experience with reviewing QT studies indicates that understanding the relationship, if any, between individual drug concentration and QT change(More)
An increasing number of thorough QT (TQT) reports are being submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration's interdisciplinary review team for QT (IRT-QT), requiring time-intensive quantitative analyses by a multidisciplinary review team within 45 days. This calls for systematic learning to guide future trials and policies by standardizing and automating(More)
Piperacillin/tazobactam, an intravenous antibacterial combination product, has recently been approved for paediatric (age 2 months to 17 years) use in the USA. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the basis for the dosing recommendations in this age group. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and demographic covariates from 53 children enrolled in two(More)