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The early dopaminergic input from the midbrain may play an important role in the development of the basal ganglia. We therefore investigated whether and how dopamine affects the morphogenesis of striatal target neurons. Dissociated cell cultures of embryonic day 17 rat striatum were raised for seven days. Cells were then incubated with dopamine or various(More)
Sexual differentiation of the brain is thought to be regulated by hormonal signals from the developing male gonad. However, more-recent experimental and clinical data throw some doubt on the general validity of the "classical" steroid hypothesis and suggest that additional intervening factors or mechanisms need to be considered. In particular, it is now(More)
The retrograde fluorescent tracers Fast Blue (FB) and Diamidino Yellow (DY) have been used to study subcortical afferents of the claustrum. DY or FB was injected into the claustrum. The greatest amount of labeled cell bodies were observed in the posterior thalamic nuclear complex. They were especially abundant in its caudal part, lying between the medial(More)
Soma sizes of embryonic male and female tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons were measured in 3 diencephalic regions in situ and in diencephalic dissociated cell cultures. Male neurons were about 30% larger than female neurons both in vitro and in situ. Treatment of cultures with sex steroids did not affect the sex differences. It is concluded that(More)
Sexual differentiation of dopaminergic neurons was studied in gender-specific cultures. Dissociated cell cultures were prepared from di- or mesencephalon of gestational day 14 rat embryos and raised in the absence or presence of 17 beta-estradiol or testosterone for up to 13 days in vitro (DIV). Developmental profiles of levels of dopamine (DA) and(More)
It is currently believed that sexual differentiation of the brain is mediated entirely by the epigenetic action of gonadal steroids during a critical period of development. Ingrid Reisert and Christoph Pilgrim review sexual dimorphisms of monoaminergic systems, which also appear to be generated by sex steroids. However, there are a number of observations(More)
The projections from the claustrum to the cerebral cortex in the rat were examined by means of retrogradely transported fluorescent tracers Fast Blue (FB) and Diamidino Yellow dihydrochloride (DY), injected in the prefrontal, motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual fields. In all cases, substantial numbers of retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in(More)
Previous results had suggested mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in cultures of gestational day (GD) 14 rat embryonic brains to be characterized by an early maturation and acquisition of sex-related differences in transmitter uptake. Therefore development of dopaminergic systems was reexamined in the rat in vivo with special emphasis on the prenatal(More)
Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders related to dopaminergic transmission typically exhibit a sex-specific prevalence. In order to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms, primary cultures of dissociated embryonic rat midbrain were subject to a 24 h treatment with dopamine in concentrations between 1 and 1000 microM. Dopamine caused a(More)