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Apical cell surfaces in metazoan epithelia, such as the wing disc of Drosophila, resemble polygons with different numbers of neighboring cells. The distribution of these polygon numbers has been shown to be conserved. Revealing the mechanisms that lead to this topology might yield insights into how the structural integrity of epithelial tissues is(More)
The regulation of organ size constitutes a major unsolved question in developmental biology. The wing imaginal disc of Drosophila serves as a widely used model system to study this question. Several mechanisms have been proposed to have an impact on final size, but they are either contradicted by experimental data or they cannot explain a number of key(More)
Morphogenesis, the process by which all complex biological structures are formed, is driven by an intricate interplay between genes, growth, as well as intra- and intercellular forces. While the expression of different genes changes the mechanical properties and shapes of cells, growth exerts forces in response to which tissues, organs and more complex(More)
Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we(More)
For animal development it is necessary that organs stop growing after they reach a certain size. However, it is still largely unknown how this termination of growth is regulated. The wing imaginal disc of Drosophila serves as a commonly used model system to study the regulation of growth. Paradoxically, it has been observed that growth occurs uniformly(More)
During embryonic development, a spatial pattern is formed in which proportions are established precisely. As an early pattern formation step in Drosophila embryos, an anterior-posterior gradient of Bicoid (Bcd) induces hunchback (hb) expression (Nature 337 (1989) 138; Nature 332 (1988) 281). In contrast to the Bcd gradient, the Hb profile includes(More)
A major limitation of any type of microscope is the penetration depth in turbid tissue. Here, we demonstrate a fundamentally novel kind of fluorescence microscope that images through optically thick turbid layers. The microscope uses scattered light, rather than light propagating along a straight path, for imaging with subwavelength resolution. Our method(More)
The transition from diffusive transport to localization of waves should occur for any type of classical or quantum wave in any media as long as the wavelength becomes comparable to the transport mean free path l*. The signatures of localization and those of absorption, or bound states, can, however, be similar, such that an unequivocal proof of the(More)
The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear(More)
After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and(More)