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To address the vast gap between current knowledge and practice in the area of dissemination and implementation research, we address terminology, provide examples of successful applications of this research, discuss key sources of support, and highlight directions and opportunities for future advances. There is a need for research testing approaches to(More)
Since cerebral ischemia increases expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and exogenous VEGF can aggravate BBB disruption in cerebral ischemia, we hypothesized that inhibition of endogenous VEGF would attenuate BBB disruption. To test this hypothesis, rats were mechanically ventilated with isoflurane and a craniotomy (5 mm in diameter) was(More)
BACKGROUND We performed this study to determine how dexmedetomidine would affect regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and microregional O(2) consumption during nonhemorrhagic normovolemia and during severe hemorrhagic hypotension in rats. METHODS Forty-eight male rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and their lungs were mechanically ventilated. Half of(More)
This study was performed to test whether systemically administered erythropoietin (EPO) could attenuate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in focal ischemia. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 2,500 IU/kg of recombinant human EPO or normal saline 24 h before middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The transfer coefficient (Ki) of(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was performed to compare the effects of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the ischemic cortex (IC) and non-ischemic contralateral cortex (CC) during the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS A middle cerebral(More)
OBJECTIVE This study compared the practices of anesthesia, anesthesia critical care, surgical critical care, and medical critical care departments that have training programs for the length of time they withhold enteral feeding from intubated patients before seven scheduled procedures: 1) extubation; 2) tracheostomy; 3) abdominal surgery; 4) nonabdominal(More)
This study was performed to determine whether exogenous N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) would aggravate blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five minutes after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, one of the following patches was applied to the(More)
This study was performed to test whether disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by hyperosmolarity could be related to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), using anti-VEGF antibody and ciclopirox olamine (CPX), an inducer of VEGF. CPX 50 mg/kg or normal saline was given intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats 18 h before BBB disruption. Two(More)
BACKGROUND We performed experiments to test whether isoflurane pretreatment produces vascular effects, especially at the levels of arterioles and capillaries affecting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), O(2) supply and consumption, or capillary permeability in focal cerebral ischemia. Because inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was implicated as one of(More)
In cerebral ischemia, transmission by the inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is altered. This study was performed to determine whether blockade of GABA(A) receptor would affect regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in a focal ischemic area of the brain. Rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and(More)