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Nitrogen, a component of many bio-molecules, is essential for growth and development of all organisms. Most nitrogen exists in the atmosphere, and utilisation of this source is important as a means of avoiding nitrogen starvation. However, the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme complex is restricted to some bacteria. Eukaryotic(More)
Recent international normative data for the 20-m shuttle-run test demonstrated a below-average performance index for UK children. The aims of the present study were to create an international comparison of 20-m shuttle-run test performance in a sample of English children and to identify age- and sex-specific differences in test performance. Mass, stature,(More)
The aim of this study was to provide normative data for performance on the 20 m shuttle-run test of cardiorespiratory fitness in English schoolchildren. A total of 7366 10-16 year olds completed the 20 m shuttle-run test. We expressed performance as the number of shuttles completed, test score (shuttles and levels) and estimated peak oxygen consumption(More)
We compared values of body mass index (BMI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run test) of n=157 boys and n=150 girls aged 10-11 measured in 2014 with measures from 2008 and 1998. Boys' fitness was lower (d=0.68) in 2014 than 2008, despite a small (d=0.37) decline in BMI. Girl's BMI changed trivially (d=0.08) but cardiorespiratory fitness was(More)
BACKGROUND The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (PAQ-C/-A) provides general estimates of physical activity levels. Following recent expert recommendations for using the PAQ for population surveillance, the aim of this paper was twofold: first, to describe normative PAQ data for English youth; and second, to determine a(More)
We measure the mass difference Δm0 between the D*(2010)+ and the D0 and the natural linewidth Γ of the transition D*(2010)+ → D0π+. The data were recorded with the BABAR detector at center-of-mass energies at and near the Υ(4S) resonance, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of approximately 477  fb(-1). The D0 is reconstructed in the decay modes D0 →(More)
We aimed to determine the relationship between level of injury, completeness of injury, resting as well as exercise hemodynamics, and endurance performance in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-three elite male paracycling athletes (C3-T8) were assessed for neurological level/completeness of injury, autonomic completeness of injury, resting(More)
STUDY DESIGN Despite significant progress in bladder management, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are still common among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), and could negatively impact their health and quality of life. However, there are no data available on bladder management and frequency of UTIs among elite athletes with SCI. METHODS Athletes(More)
PURPOSE Cycling to school is positively associated with aerobic fitness in Danish schoolchildren and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a positive association exists between active travel and aerobic fitness in English schoolchildren, where cycling to school is rare. METHODS Participants (n = 6085, 47% girls, aged 10.0-15.9(More)
AIMS The aims of this study were to evaluate patterns of handgrip (HG) strength in relation to gender and age in English schoolchildren and to compare this with existing data and produce reference data for this population. METHODS The HG of 7147 English schoolchildren (3773 boys and 3374 girls) aged 10-15.9 years was measured using a portable Takei(More)