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The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatic sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic. These classes contain all 156 known transcription units, which include 78(More)
Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first(More)
Human chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage in being the product of a head-to-head fusion of two intermediate-sized ancestral chromosomes. Chromosome 4 has received attention primarily related to the search for the Huntington's disease gene, but also for genes associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, polycystic kidney disease and a form of muscular(More)
Salmonella enterica serovars often have a broad host range, and some cause both gastrointestinal and systemic disease. But the serovars Paratyphi A and Typhi are restricted to humans and cause only systemic disease. It has been estimated that Typhi arose in the last few thousand years. The sequence and microarray analysis of the Paratyphi A genome indicates(More)
RATIONALE Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, although M. tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis. The traditional view holds that inflammation in sarcoidosis is compartmentalized to involved organs. OBJECTIVES To determine whether whole blood gene expression signatures reflect inflammatory pathways in the lung in(More)
RATIONALE Changes in airway epithelial cell differentiation, driven in part by IL-13, are important in asthma. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation in many systems and could contribute to epithelial abnormalities in asthma. OBJECTIVES To determine whether airway epithelial miRNA expression is altered in asthma and identify IL-13-regulated(More)
OBJECTIVE There is a widely held view that, due to high fat content, snacking on nuts will lead to weight gain, ultimately causing unhealthy changes in lipid profiles. This study is designed to study the effects of pistachio snack consumption on body weight and lipid levels in obese participants under real-world conditions. METHODS Participants were(More)
OBJECTIVES There are limited data on the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the disease pathology of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We tested the differences in Treg in subjects with EoE compared with those with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and healthy controls (HC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Pediatric patients evaluated by endoscopy were(More)
BACKGROUND Methotrexate has multiple therapeutic uses in women of reproductive age including treatment for ectopic pregnancy, neoplastic disease, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions. More frequent use of methotrexate may result in an increased number of exposures in pregnant women and their fetuses. CASE A 16-year-old gravida 1, para 0 used(More)
We report the use of a fragment-based lead discovery method, Tethering with extenders, to discover a pyridinone fragment that binds in an adaptive site of the protein PDK1. With subsequent medicinal chemistry, this led to the discovery of a potent and highly selective inhibitor of PDK1, which binds in the 'DFG-out' conformation.