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Before the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, rates of invasive H. influenzae disease among indigenous people of the North American Arctic were among the highest in the world. Routine vaccination reduced rates to low levels; however, serotype replacement with non-type b strains may result in a reemergence of invasive(More)
The International Circumpolar Surveillance System is a population-based surveillance network for invasive bacterial disease in the Arctic. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced for routine infant vaccination in Alaska (2001), northern Canada (2002-2006), and Norway (2006). Data for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were(More)
The Government of Bangladesh and WHO collaborated in a retrospective vaccine wastage study to estimate overall vaccine wastage rates from January to December 2004 for BCG, measles, DTP and TT. Researchers looked at vaccine distribution and usage patterns in randomly selected districts at both fixed (Upazila) and outreach (Ward) service delivery levels.(More)
International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) is a population-based invasive bacterial disease surveillance network. Participating Canadian regions include Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and northern regions of Québec and Labrador (total population 132,956, 59% aboriginal). Clinical and demographic information were collected by using standardized(More)
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