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Variation within genes has important implications for all biological traits. We identified 3899 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were present within 313 genes from 82 unrelated individuals of diverse ancestry, and we organized the SNPs into 4304 different haplotypes. Each gene had several variable SNPs and haplotypes that were present in all(More)
The apical surfaces of urothelial cells are almost entirely covered with plaques consisting of crystalline, hexagonal arrays of 16 nm uroplakin particles. Although all four uroplakins, when SDS-denatured, can be digested by chymotrypsin, most uroplakin domains in native urothelial plaques are resistant to the enzyme, suggesting a tightly packed structure.(More)
The dorsal surfaces of mammalian tongues are covered with numerous projections known as filiform papillae whose morphology varies in different species. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to keratins as probes, we have established that, in both human and mouse, the interpapillary epithelia express mainly the "esophageal-type" keratins, while the(More)
BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often treated using methylphenidate, a psychostimulant that inhibits the dopamine transporter. This led E.H. Cook and colleagues to consider the dopamine transporter locus (DAT1) as a primary candidate gene for ADHD. That group reported a significant association between ADHD and the 480-base pair(More)
OBJECTIVE B7-H4, a member of the B7 family of immunoregulatory receptors, may participate in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immunity. Aberrant B7-H4 expression is detected in some tumors and it plays a role in the occurrence and development of tumors. The aim of this study was to elucidate the functional and structural properties of B7-H4. (More)
There are remarkable disparities among patients of different races with prostate cancer; however, the mechanism underlying this difference remains unclear. Here, we present a comprehensive landscape of the transcriptome profiles of 14 primary prostate cancers and their paired normal counterparts from the Chinese population using RNA-seq, revealing(More)
Changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 concentration and protease genotype were evaluated in semen specimens from 22 HIV-positive men before and 6 months after the addition of indinavir to dual nucleoside therapy. Seminal HIV was detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis for DNA or RNA for 59% of men before combination treatment and(More)
IL-17 is one of the most potent and most actively investigated proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we examined the effect of IL-17 on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under the influence of inflammatory cytokines. Ironically, IL-17 dramatically enhanced the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs induced by IFNγ and TNFα, revealing a novel role of IL-17 in(More)
RhoA GTPase dysregulation is frequently reported in various tumours and haematologic malignancies. RhoA, regulating Rho-associated coiled-coil-forming kinase 1 (ROCK1), modulates multiple cell functions, including malignant transformation, metastasis and cell death. Therefore, RhoA/ROCK1 could be an ideal candidate target in cancer treatment. However, the(More)
Selenite has emerged as an optional chemotherapeutic agent for hematological malignancies. Autophagy and apoptosis are both engaged in selenite-induced cell death. In a previous report, we have identified heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as a critical modulator of the balance between autophagy and apoptosis in selenite-treated leukemia cells. However, the(More)