Christine M. Grimaldi

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We have demonstrated previously that 17 beta-estradiol (E2) treatment of BALB/c mice transgenic for the heavy chain of a pathogenic anti-DNA Ab induces a lupus-like phenotype with expansion of anti-DNA B cells, elevation of anti-DNA Ab titers, and glomerular immunoglobulin deposition. To understand this loss of B cell tolerance, the effects of E2 on B cell(More)
Estrogen is thought to contribute to the increased frequency of autoimmune disorders occurring in females, but a molecular basis for its effects on autoimmunity remains to be elucidated. We have shown previously that estrogen leads to the survival and activation of autoreactive cells in the naive repertoire. To identify the molecular pathways involved in B(More)
The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is far higher in females than in males and numerous investigations to understand this gender bias have been conducted. While it is plausible that some sex-linked genes may contribute to the genetic predisposition for the disease, other likely culprits are the sex hormones estrogen and prolactin. In this(More)
It is clear that estrogen can accelerate and exacerbate disease in some lupus-prone mouse strains. It also appears that estrogen can contribute to disease onset or flare in a subset of patients with lupus. We have previously shown estrogen alters B-cell development to decrease lymphopoiesis and increase the frequency of marginal zone B cells. Furthermore,(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the production of pathogenic autoantibodies, primarily to nuclear antigens. The etiology of SLE is not entirely understood, but it is well-appreciated that multiple factors such as genetics and environment contribute to disease progression and pathogenesis. There is also convincing(More)
Autoreactive B cells arise routinely as part of the naive B cell repertoire. The immune system employs several mechanisms in an attempt to silence these autoreactive cells before they achieve immunocompetence. The BCR plays a central role in B cell development, activation, survival, and apoptosis, and thus is a critical component of the regulation of both(More)
Sex hormones are presumed to contribute to sexual dimorphism in the immune system. Estrogen, in particular, has been suggested to predispose women to systemic lupus erythematosus. We report here that estradiol (E(2)) can break B cell tolerance and induce a lupus-like phenotype in nonautoimmune mice transgenic for the heavy chain of a pathogenic anti-DNA(More)
B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) blockade prevents the onset of disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-prone NZB/NZW F(1) mice. To determine the mechanism of this effect, we administered a short course of TACI-Ig with and without six doses of CTLA4-Ig to 18- to 20-wk-old NZB/NZW F(1) mice and evaluated the effect on B and T(More)
A major goal for the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with cytotoxic therapies is the induction of long-term remission. There is, however, a paucity of information concerning the effects of these therapies on the reconstituting B cell repertoire. Since there is recent evidence suggesting that B cell lymphopenia might attenuate(More)
A 20-year-old woman from a consanguineous family in the Hunan Province of the People's Republic of China was diagnosed as having Glanzmann's thrombasthenia based on (1) nearly a lifelong history of epistaxis, gum bleeding, petechiae, and purpura; (2) severe menorrhagia resulting in anemia and need for whole-blood transfusion; (3) normal coagulation assays;(More)